13 Global Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation

13 Global Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation - Global...

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Unformatted text preview: Global atmospheric and oceanic circulation GEOG345 October 19 2006 Textbook: chapter 10 (except El Niño and the Southern Oscillation and beyond) chapter 9 – Seasonally changing winds – the monsoon General (global) circulation • Overall, global “framework” for weather and climate • Average air flow • Driven by the unequal heating of the Earths’ surface • Understanding of the general circulation patterns is essential for understanding global climate patters Fig. 2-17, p. 47 Variation of energy balance by latitude This contrast is the primary driving force of atmospheric and oceanic circulation -> weather and climate. Single-cell model • Earth is uniformly covered with water – excludes effects of differential land-ocean heat balance • The Sun is directly over the equator – excludes seasonality • The Earth does not rotate – excludes diurnal cycle and Coriolis force Fig. 10-1, p. 256 Single-cell model Hadley cell: thermally direct cell (warm air rises, cold air sinks) Fig. 10-2, p. 257 Three-cell model: spinning Earth Arrows show winds at the surface Doldrums, horse latitudes: areas of light winds Ferrel cell: thermally indirect cell (cold air rises, warm air sinks) The three-cell model represents well actual conditions at the surface Fig. 1, p. 259 Satellite observations of surface winds ITCZ easterlies easterlies westerlies cyclones/anticyclones westerlies cyclones/anticyclones Surface wind speed and direction can be estimated from observed surface roughness. Three-cell model and beyond • The distribution of oceans and land masses impacts global circulation patterns...
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course GEOG 345 taught by Professor Csiszar during the Fall '06 term at Maryland.

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13 Global Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation - Global...

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