3 Weather and Climate

3 Weather and Climate - Weather and Climate GEOG345 Sep 7...

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Weather and Climate GEOG345 Sep 7 2006 Textbook: chapter 1 (2 nd half)
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Weather condition of the atmosphere at any particular time and space How do we characterize weather? air temperature air pressure humidity (water vapor) clouds (liquid droplets or solid crystals) precipitation (liquid or solid) visibility wind anything else? pollution UV index etc. humans have different sensitivity to weather elements we do not “feel” that air pressure is changing unless we ascend to or descend from high altitudes
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Weather: current conditions
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Current infrared image
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Current visible image
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Current water vapor image
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Climate climate klima (Greek): region, zone klinein : to slope climate is linked to a location global, regional, local, micro- the most important factor in shaping climate is the illumination angle of the Sun distance from the equator or geographic latitude climate is the accumulation of weather over a long period of time average range of weather variability (daily, seasonal, interannual) extreme events and their frequencies
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Climate system and climate change climate is shaped by external forcings i.e. solar illumination interactions between the atmosphere and other “spheres” interactions within the atmosphere climate system includes all other dynamic spheres (oceans, ice caps, etc.) climate is changing over time external forcing changes natural inclination of the Earth’s rotation of axis volcanic activity continental drift etc. anthropogenic (i.e. of human origin) internal processes erosion vegetation cover etc. time scales of processes are different (atmosphere is the most variable sphere) paleoclimatology is the science of past climates global change, global warming, climate change are current issues with many scientific, societal and political implications
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Fig. 1-5, p. 6 Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) background measurements – away from direct sources / sinks
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Temperature variations in the Northern Hemisphere grey shading shows statistical confidence note actual data (blue and red) and the smoothed curve (black)
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Short-term and interannual variability Mt. Pinatubo effect?
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3 Weather and Climate - Weather and Climate GEOG345 Sep 7...

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