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PhysioExamIII - Exam 3 Chapter 11: Autonomic Nervous System...

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Exam 3Chapter 11: Autonomic Nervous System-another aspect of the peripheral nervous system-also known as visceral nervous system; viscera refers to internal organs-we’re talking about a nervous system that is able to modify activity in internal organs-how does our body do everything it does without us having to think about it?-much of what the ANS does doesn’t require a lot of input from CNS activities-it happens automatically; part of the control of that is mediated through the ANS-think of the ANS as involuntary; doesn’t require conscious thought to controlHomeostatic Control:Preserve internal environmentUp/down regulation (tonic activity)exhibits up/down regulation by changing activity within this homeostatic control systemyou can either increase activity or down regulate that activity by decreasingtonic activity- unlike light-switches which are binary processes, there is some background activitygoing on at all times & you can control it by increasing or decreasing it, like a dimmer switchAntagonistic controlsome way where if 1 system is causing an increase, you need to have another system or part of thesystem working to decrease the activityworks to keep internal environment at a relatively constant levelChemical signalsàdifferent effectsdifferent neurotransmitters that are secreted by different sets of neuronseven the same chemical being secreted by a neuron can have different effects in different tissues; theseeffects are mediated by receptors that are located on that tissueANS overall function- homeostasis of individual organs and interaction of those organs within the whole bodythere are a variety of areas that are located up in the cerebral cortex that are involved in some of thesehomeostatic controls such as temperature control, water balance, eating behavior; controlled higher upin CNSother functions are controlled lower down in the CNS in the area of the brain stem, the hypothalamus,the pons, and the medulla- bladder control, respiratory center, blood pressure (all brain stem mediated)these centers can modify the amount of output that is put out from the ANS from the CNS being sentout from the peripheral tissues1
Exam 3Sensory input→ hypothalamus, pons, medulla→ ANS→ effector organsThe CNS in some of these larger centers is going to process the information from these centers anddetermine how much activity/signaling needs to come out from the hypothalamus, pons, and medullainto the ANS change or modify the output from the effector organs.Some of this information that’s processed at the CNS that determines how much output you get comesfrom sensations out in the periphery. In addition it’s affected by other things such as emotionalresponses from the limbic system.

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