# week 3.pdf - 9/03/2020 Exercises on bivariate graphs;...

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9/03/20201Exercises on bivariate graphs;misleading statisticsWeek 31Bar chart showing percentages of adults who smokedaily, by age group, for the years 20012010(Australia)Bar chart showing information about 146 children from aNew South Wales school. ‘Learner’ status indicates whetherthey have been classified as slow or average learners.Discuss points of interest for each graphtypes of variable, association?What would we expect to see if there were no association between the variables?2Per capita monthly expenditure on publiceducation in the 50 states of the U.S., in 1975,by region.Systolic blood pressure (pressure inblood vessels when heart beats) andsmoking status of 500 individuals.3Types of variable, association? What would we expect to see ifthere were no association between the variables?
9/03/202021. How to create clustered bar chart in Excela) from contingency table (frequency table)1. Click on thetable, InsertColumn or BarChart then 2DClustered Column3. See ‘Help with Excel #7’for more detail2. Can you see thatEthnicity is on the(horizontal) ‘Axis’and Gender is the‘Legend’?4b) directly from data (have to use a Pivot Chart)2. Drag one variableinto each of ‘Axis’and ‘Legend’ *3. Drageithervariableinto ‘ΣValues’1. Insert tab then‘Pivot Chart’4. See ‘Help with Excel #7’ formore detail5Again, can use displays of proportions for pivot table and chart:a) click on drop down menu under ‘Count of Gender’ (or ‘Count of Ethnicity’), select ‘Value Field Settings’,‘Show values as’% of grand total6
9/03/20203b) or show values as% of column totalc) or as% of row totalSee ‘Help with Excel #7’ formore detail72. How to create side by side boxplots in Excel1.Select columns of interest,Insert Statistic Chart thenBox & Whisker2. See ‘Help with Excel #8’for more detail83. How to create scatterplots in Excel1.Select required columns ofdata then Insert Scatter2. See ‘Help with Excel #9’for more detail9
9/03/20204This dataset containsinformation about the percapita monthly expenditureon public education in the50 states of the U.S.(variable name isEducationExpenditure).It also includes the numberof residents per thousandresiding in urban areas(Resident), per capitapersonal monthly income(Income) and the number ofresidents per thousandunder 18 years of age(Under18)We could compare threeplots all with the same Xvariable (Income) butdifferent Y variables…1011‘Figures often beguile me, particularly when Ihave the arranging of them myself; in which casethe remark attributed to Disraeli would oftenapply with justice and force: “There are threekinds of lies: lies, damned lies and statistics.” ’Mark Twain's: Chapters from my autobiography.The North American Review (7 September 1906)“How to lie with statistics” – Darrell Huff, 1954(Norton & Co. publishers)A book of tips of the deception trade!

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