Western Civ STUDY guide, Test III

Western Civ STUDY guide, Test III - Western Civ Test III...

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Western Civ Test III Class Notes November 7, 2007 The Middle Ages Christianity is center of Europe 99% of westerners were Roman Catholic Christians All looked to one person for spiritual guidance The Pope St. Peter – 1 st Bishop of Rome Pope lives in Rome, controls whole Christian church in west Human beings could be saved from sin and go to heaven only if they obeyed the 7 Sacraments – extension of God’s grace Baptism – Erases the first original sin of Adam and Eve Confirmation – Holy Communion – taking of body and blood of Jesus Christ (wine and bread) Marriage – must have a priest present Penance – confessing to the priest Ordination – Only a priest or bishop can ordain a man to becoming a priest Last Rites – When you are nearing death, a priest is present saying prayers putting you in God’s hands Transubstantiation – Doctrine of the mystery of the Holy Communion. The transformation of the bread and wine All Christians live by these ways. Pope today has very little power compared to 1000 years ago Pope has 2 ways of imposing himself of a leader Interdict – Pope has the authority to withhold some or all of holy sacraments from the entire country E.g. – King John of England argued with the pope. Pope placed England in Interdict for 7 years Power and moral weapon used by the church Excommunicate – To throw out of the church Fred II – Holy Roman Emperor Excommunicated by 3 popes 4 different times Relics Object associated with a holy person, saint, bishop, etc. E.g. pieces of wood from Jesus’ cross Architecture Romanesque – Style of Rome Gothic Height and Light are the difference from Romanesque and Gothic Abbot Suger – Head monk of St. Denis Wanted a different type of Architecture for Christianity Height puts us closer to the presence of God, Over 150 ft. tall Light gives a better feeling. St. Denis is first Gothic church
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Crusades Urban II Travels to South France in Clermont and announces he has authorized the first Crusade The city most important to Christianity is in control by Muslims Christians break walls of Jerusalem and slaughter everyone. – Bloodbath 1 st crusade is a success for Christians Muslims take back Jerusalem Christians and Muslims go back and forth in control 8 Crusades in 200 years 3 rd Crusade – 1190’s Dedicated to recapturing Jerusalem Pope invites leading champions of Christianity Fred Barbarossa - HRE of Germany Phillip II – King of France Has largest number of Knights Richard I – King of England Christianities most successful knight Germans go by land and French and English sail by sea Fred B. has a stroke and drowns on the way. All Germans go back home Phillip II becomes very sick and returns home Richard I is the only one left and insists they can still do it Saladin – Great Muslim commander. King of Syria and Egypt Richard decides they can’t win and they sign a treaty An agreement that Jerusalem will stay in Muslim hands and Christians who want to go to
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Western Civ STUDY guide, Test III - Western Civ Test III...

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