Chapter 12 - Ali Taqi 1 AP Psychology Chapter 12:...

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Ali Taqi 1 AP Psychology Chapter 12: Motivation I. Perspectives on Motivation -Motivation- a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior - There are four perspectives used to understand behavior 1. instinct theory 2. drive-reduction theory 3. arousal theory 4. hierarchy of needs 1. Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology - An instinct is a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. - This theory is explained by how babies ‘indistinctively’ know how to root and suck. - This theory failed to explain human motives, it did, however, assume that genes predispose typical- species behavior. 2. Drives and Incentives - This theory succeeded instinct theory. - Drive reduction theory is the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. (Thirsty Drink) - When a physiological need increases, so does a psychological drive. - Physiological aim to drive reduction is called homeostasis. - Homeostasis is a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant state (body-temperature). - Not only are we “pushed” by our need to reduce drives we are “pulled” by incentives. - Incentives are positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior. - Example includes bread when you are starving. 3. Optimum Arousal - Humans as well as other animals are curious; this curiosity includes climbing mountains, trying to open a lock, etc. - Human motivation is not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels of arousal through satisfaction. - We feel driven to experience stimulation, in order to escape boredom. 4. Hierarchy of Motives - Hierarchy of needs says that some physiological needs must be satisfied before others. - This was developed by Abraham Maslow in a shape of an ascending pyramid. - Maslow’s hierarchy is not universally fixed (hunger is used is used as protest in some areas). II. Hunger - In 1950, Ancel Keys cut 36 male volunteers meals in half, this caused psychological harm. - It caused them to always think about food. 1. Physiology of Hunger - People basically feel hunger in response to a homeostatic system designed to maintain normal body weight and nutrition supply.
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Ali Taqi 2 - Body chemicals and brain states also affect hunger. A. Body Chemistry and the Brain - Glucose is the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. - When its levels drop, we feel hunger.
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Khalid during the Fall '07 term at Vanderbilt.

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Chapter 12 - Ali Taqi 1 AP Psychology Chapter 12:...

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