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Chapter 17 - Ali Taqi 1 AP Environmental Science Chapter 17...

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Ali Taqi 1 AP Environmental Science Chapter 17: Nonrenewable Energy Resources 17-1: Evaluating Energy Resources A. What Types of Energy Do We Use? - About 99% of the energy that heats the earth and our homes comes from the sun (solar capital), the remaining 1% comes mostly from burning fossil fuels. B. What Types of Commercial Energy Does the World Depend On? - About 84% of commercial energy consumed in the world comes from nonrenewable energy resources and the rest from renewable (biomass, hydropower, solar, etc). - Much of developing countries use biomass energy (wood) to be used as heating. - Bad news is there is wood shortage because of unstable harvesting of wood. C. What is the Energy Future of the United States? - U.S uses 94% of commercial energy from nonrenewable resources. - The need to use cleaner and less climate disrupting energy resources is a driving=force behind transition to solar-hydrogen power. - Energy path of U.S is primarily a political decision. D. How Can We Decide What Energy Resources to Use - We need to answer several questions in deciding which energy resources to promote. - Policies must be in mind because it takes at least 50 years to phase in new energy alternatives. 17-2: Oil A. What is Crude Oil? - Petroleum or crude oil is a thick liquid consisting o hundreds of combustible hydrocarbons. - Three events caused there to be oil: 1)Sediments of organisms buried in seafloor. 2) Sediments slowly cook and convert to oil. 3) Oil covered by porous-like rock (limestone) - Oil is drilled and gravity yields rest. - Only 50% of well is used because rest is hard to get. - Refineries take the oil and they distill it to different types of fuels such as: gasoline, heating oil, diesel oil, etc. - Petrochemicals are used as raw materials in manufacturing different items (clothes, paint, etc). B. OPEC - 11 countries comprise of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). - They have 78% of world’s oil and most of them are located in the Middle East. - Since Middle East has such vital oil, other countries have interest in economic and military support in that region.
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