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work - ii Workers felt the right to control the pace of...

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1.1 Industrial work and the laboring class a. Ethnic diversity i. Immigrants made up a large portion of the working class in the late nineteenth century ii. The occupational patterns of the workplace are a direct result of the ethnic diversity of the times iii. Whites occupied the top tier, next came northern Europeans, next came the “new immigrants,” and finally came blacks b. The nature of work i. A majority of Americans now labored in a factory setting or small sweatshop ii. Workdays were very long: ten hours a day, six days a week iii. Work was uncomfortable, dangerous, and usually repetitively boring; accident rates were high iv. Sending children into the work forces was a fact of survival for many Americans c. Protests i. Workers and employers constantly struggled for control of the workplace
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Unformatted text preview: ii. Workers felt the right to control the pace of production in factories and developed strong-arm tactics to encourage solidarity within the shop iii. Protest came in the guise of absenteeism, drunkenness, general inefficiency, and quitting work altogether d. Strikes i. The most direct methodology to adjust conditions in the workplace was the strike ii. Strikes in the nineteenth century usually happened at the workplace, replacing neighborhood riots iii. As collective action spread, unions began to play a more active role in arbitration of grievances iv. Coordination between workplaces performing the same work led to uniform wages and hours...
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