Psychology Exam 3 Definitions - Study Guide

Psychology Exam 3 Definitions - Study Guide - Definitions...

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Definitions Psychology - Exam 3 Cognition The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. Concept A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people Prototype A mental image r best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin). Algorithm A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier – but also more error-prone – use of heuristics. Heuristic A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms. Insight A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions. Confirmation Bias A tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions. Fixation The inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving. Mental Set A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past. Functional Fixedness The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving. Representiveness Heuristic Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information. Availability Heuristic Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common. Overconfidence The tendency to be more confident than correct – to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments. Framing The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments. Belief Bias The tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid. Belief Perseverance Clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited. Language Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning. Phoneme In a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit. Morpheme In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix). Grammar In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. Semantics The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.
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Syntax The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language. Babbling Stage
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course PSYH 110 taught by Professor Wielder during the Fall '08 term at Saint Louis.

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Psychology Exam 3 Definitions - Study Guide - Definitions...

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