England in the Sixteenth Century notes - England in the Sixteenth Century Henry VIII Church of England Elizabeth the Virgin Queen Spanish Armada

England in the Sixteenth Century notes - England in the...

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England in the Sixteenth Century Henry VIII – Church of England Elizabeth - the Virgin Queen Spanish Armada Hostility toward Spain helped motivate English interest in the New World Early English Exploration John Cabot - 1497 Sir Francis Drake and the sea dogs Sir Walter Raleigh - named Virginia in honor of the Virgin Queen - Roanoke colony in present-day North Carolina in 1587 (Lost Colony) The Three Kinds of English Colonies Proprietary colony – owned by a company (Virginia until 1624) or a single person and his heirs (Maryland and Pennsylvania-plus-Delaware) Charter colony – completely self-governing, including the right to elect its own governor, but still loyal to the Crown (Massachusetts until 1685, Connecticut, and Rhode Island) Royal colony – owned directly by the Crown and under a royally appointed governor (all the other colonies, eventually, although some went through proprietary stages) Jamestown, Virginia Founded in 1607 - Virginia Company – named after James I Plans for trading network John Smith Powhatan and Pocahontas Smith returned to England in 1609 The Virginia Colony Survives Starving time John Rolfe (marriage to Pocahontas) and tobacco 1619 - the House of Burgesses 1619 - first shipment of African slaves – slavery became common gradually 1622 - many killed in surprise attack by Indians - the colony again recovered
1624 - became a royal colony Established Church of England Pocahontas The Puritan Movement in England Wanted to “purify” the Church of England of Catholic influences – C of E still had bishops and elaborate ceremonies Calvinists - TULIP - total depravity, unconditional election, limited atonement, irresistible grace, and perseverance of the saints A human being could not become a good person worthy of Heaven on his own, but needed the assistance of God - God chose almost at random (predestination) those to whom he would give the necessary assistance (grace) to be among the saved (the elect) Most Puritans remained within the C of E – some left and became separatists The Pilgrims of Plymouth Separatists – had spent time in the Netherlands The Mayflower - 1620 The Mayflower Compact Plague in Plymouth area had already devastated Indian population High death rate in first winter Massasoit (Wampanoag tribe) and Squanto The colony survived and celebrated Thanksgiving in Fall 1621 The Puritans of Massachusetts Bay The Puritans founded Massachusetts and Boston in 1630 Founded by private company John Winthrop - city on a hill Congregationalist system was the established church Other Puritans founded the colonies of Connecticut, New Haven (later merged with Connecticut), and New Hampshire The City upon a Hill Speech “For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us. So that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause Him to withdraw His present help from us, we shall be made a story and a
byword through the world. We shall open the mouths of enemies to speak evil of the

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