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Biology 1201 Chapter 14 notes

Biology 1201 Chapter 14 notes - Biology 1201 Chapter 14...

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Biology 1201 Chapter 14 notes Chapter 14 MENDEL AND THE GENE IDEA Heredity: The Story of Gregor Mendel - 14.1.1 >>>>>>The father of genetics: Johann (Gregor) Mendel Mendel was a monk who was trained in science at the University of Vienna. The realization that both parents contributed to the characteristics of the offspring preceded the work of Mendel. The favored explanation of how this occurred was the blending theory of heredity. Modern genetics began with Mendel, and lead to the replacement of the blending theory with the particulate theory of heredity. Among Mendel’s teachers were: -a physicist named Doppler who taught Mendel to use a quantitative experimental approach in studying natural phenomena. -a botanist named Unger who interested Mendel in the inheritable variation in plants These influences helped lead Mendel to the study of the variation of garden peas. Why peas?? -Many different characters and traits --- Characters any detectable inheritable features of an organism --- Traits the individual variants of an inheritable character For Mendel’s pea plants the characters and traits he examined were (see table 14.1) CHARACTER TRAIT 1. Flower color (purple or white)
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2. Flower position (axial or terminal) 3. Seed color (yellow or green) 4. Seed shape (round or wrinkled) 5. Pod shape (inflated or constricted) 6. Pod color (green or yellow) 7. Stem length (tall or dwarf) Mendel’s Findings: A First Look at Phenotypic Ratios - 14.1.2 Mendel started his experiments with true-breeding plant varieties which he hybridized (cross-pollinated) (see fig. 14.2) --- True-breeding varieties in which self-fertilization leads to offspring which are the same type as the parent. Terminology for breeding (or genetics) experiments (see fig. 14.3) - P generation - F1 generation - F2 generation Mendel’s Conclusion: Alternate Alleles and Dominance - 14.1.3 Mendel observed the transmission of the selected traits over these three generations and arrived at two principles of heredity: The law of segregation The law of independent assortment >>>>>According to the law of segregation, two alleles
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Biology 1201 Chapter 14 notes - Biology 1201 Chapter 14...

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