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Unformatted text preview: 2/5/08 Self in the Social World Self-concept A persons answer to the question, Who am I? Self-esteem A persons overall self-evaluation or sense of worth Self-schemas beliefs about self that organize way we view ourselves and the world- mental templates- whats important to our sense of self shapes our focus (cars, music) Actual Self The person you are right now Ideal Self what you want to be; goals Ought Self what you should be; how you were raised Feared Self what you fear becoming Self-Discrepancy Theory (Higgins, 1989)- our self-views include how well our actual self matches our self-guides- Discrepancy mismatch between actual and a self-guide o Result in emotional reactions- Peoples specific emotional reaction to a discrepancy depends upon which self-guide they do not meet o Actual < Ideal (sad) o Actual > Ought (anxious) o Actual > Feared (relief) Sources of our self-concept- responses from others o looking-glass self we view ourselves through the eyes of others and incorporate their perceptions of us into our self-concept o how others react to us is very important o important others are particularly influential catholic students were exposed to scowling face of Pope or an unknown person then evaluated themselves more negative self-evaluation if viewed scowling Pope- social comparisons o We asses our qualities by comparing self to others Prefer to compare ourselves to similar others o If goal is to feel good about selves we make downward social comparisons o Upward comparisons can be threatening- reflections from others o How we view close others is important for how we view ourselves o We try to associate ourselves with people who will make us look good (BIRGing - Bask in Reflected Glory) [i.e. Pats won, we won] o We try to distance ourselves from others who make us look bad (CORFing Cutting off the Reflected Failure) [i.e. Pats lost, they lost] To protect self-esteem- our culture o People in Western cultures tend to have an independent view of the self (personal attributes) o People in non-Western cultures tend to have an interdependent view of self (group membership) (collectiveistic) o Independent view Self is stable Goal be unique Promote own goals Happiness comes from feeling effective and superior o Interdependent view Self is flexible Goal belong Promote group goals Happiness comes from feeling connected Caveat Important to realize that although one culture may be more independent or interdependent than another, there is a lot of variation within cultures and individuals Maintaining Self-Esteem- Self-Evaluation Maintenance Theory (Tesser 1988) o How do we maintain positive self-views?...
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- Spring '08
- Social Psychology