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Unformatted text preview: 2/5/08 Self in the Social World Self-concept – A person’s answer to the question, “Who am I?” Self-esteem – A person’s overall self-evaluation or sense of worth Self-schemas – beliefs about self that organize way we view ourselves and the world- mental templates- what’s important to our sense of self shapes our focus (cars, music) Actual Self – The person you are right now Ideal Self – what you want to be; goals Ought Self – what you should be; how you were raised Feared Self – what you fear becoming Self-Discrepancy Theory (Higgins, 1989)- our self-views include how well our actual self matches our self-guides- Discrepancy – mismatch between actual and a self-guide o Result in emotional reactions- People’s specific emotional reaction to a discrepancy depends upon which self-guide they do not meet o Actual < Ideal (sad) o Actual > Ought (anxious) o Actual > Feared (relief) Sources of our self-concept- responses from others o looking-glass self – we view ourselves through the eyes of others and incorporate their perceptions of us into our self-concept o how others react to us is very important o important others are particularly influential catholic students were exposed to scowling face of Pope or an unknown person then evaluated themselves more negative self-evaluation if viewed scowling Pope- social comparisons o We asses our qualities by comparing self to others Prefer to compare ourselves to similar others o If goal is to feel good about selves we make downward social comparisons o Upward comparisons can be threatening- reflections from others o How we view close others is important for how we view ourselves o We try to associate ourselves with people who will make us look good (BIRGing - Bask in Reflected Glory) [i.e. Pats won, we won] o We try to distance ourselves from others who make us look bad (CORFing – Cutting off the Reflected Failure) [i.e. Pats lost, they lost] To protect self-esteem- our culture o People in Western cultures tend to have an independent view of the self (personal attributes) o People in non-Western cultures tend to have an interdependent view of self (group membership) (collectiveistic) o Independent view Self is stable Goal – be unique Promote own goals Happiness comes from feeling effective and superior o Interdependent view Self is flexible Goal – belong Promote group goals Happiness comes from feeling connected Caveat – Important to realize that although one culture may be more independent or interdependent than another, there is a lot of variation within cultures and individuals Maintaining Self-Esteem- Self-Evaluation Maintenance Theory (Tesser 1988) o How do we maintain positive self-views?...
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course PSYCH 360 taught by Professor Butz during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).
- Spring '08
- Social Psychology