233 notes exam 2

233 notes exam 2 - SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Focuses on...

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SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Focuses on observable events and their consequences  (rather than on unconscious motives and drives.)  Focuses on the influence of the social environment  –Gender development, same as other development  –Based on Traditional Learning Theory  Operant conditioning Reinforcement Punishment  –Learning as Cognition  Observational learning  Imitation  Modeling   Social Learning Theory      •Gender role:  –activities engaged more frequently by men or women  •Uses operant conditioning  –rewarded and punished to act like boys and girls;  •Reinforcement  –occurs after a behavior  –makes the behavior more likely to occur in the future   Social Learning Theory 2 Processes:  VICARIOUS LEARNING  Consistency is not required for learning gendered behaviors illusory correlation  Social Constructionism  Bi-directional interaction –Of  Cultural and Biological contributors  •Includes  “self-fulfilling prophecy”  •Self-selections of individual behavior…  •So that behavior will “ fit” into social  roles MODELING The process by which children imitate the behavior of their same-sex parent,  especially if the parent rewards their imitation  A central concept of the social learning perspective of gender socialization D. Lynn’s linkage of Psychodynamic Identity Theory and Social Learning Theory •Males experience the more RIGID role definition, i.e.,  there’s more punishment for cross sex-typed behavior  •Males often report more  restricted access  to personal models •Thus, males may be more restricted to  MEDIA models 
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GI Joe, sports figures   PEER GROUPS  overt reinforcement and punishment  with adherence or  deviation from traditional male role models COGNITIVE  DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY Children learn gender through their mental efforts to organize the social world by looking for patterns  in the physical and social world. Gender-Related  Cognitions •Gender labeling:  –The ability to use boy/girl label consistently.  •Gender identity:  –The ability to identify self as boy/girl.  •Gender constancy:  –belief gender is constant throughout lifetime.  SCHEMA A central concept of the cognitive development theory perspective of gender socialization  A category used to organize and make sense of information and experiences PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
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233 notes exam 2 - SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Focuses on...

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