Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous...

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Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solution 1 Types of Chemical Reactions Precipitation Reaction AX( aq ) + BY( aq ) → AY( aq ) + BX( s ) precipitate AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl(aq) → NaNO 3 (aq) + AgCl(s) Acid-Base Neutralization Reaction HX( aq ) + MOH( aq ) → H 2 O( l ) + MX( aq ) acid base water salt HCl( aq ) + NaOH( aq ) → H 2 O( l ) + NaCl( aq ) Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions one atom’s oxidation # (similar to charge) gets more + one atom’s oxidation # gets more – 2Al( s ) + 3Cl 2 ( g ) → 2AlCl 3 ( s ) ox # 0 0 +3 –1 Electrolytes Need charged particles in solution for solution to conduct Electrolyte – solution that conducts or solution that contains ions Nonelectrolyte – solution that doesn’t conduct or solution that doesn’t contain ions 2 Examples: sugar dissolves in water salt dissolves in water C 12 H 22 O 11 ( s ) 2 H O y C 12 H 22 O 11 ( aq ) no dissociation sugar is nonelectrolyte NaCl( s ) 2 H O y Na + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) dissociation salt is electrolyte dissociation – breaking apart into ions If substance dissociates a lot (70 – 100%) strong electrolyte If substance dissociates a little weak electrolyte Can categorize electrolytes.
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Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solution 2 Strong Electrolytes: soluble ionic compounds strong acids strong bases Weak Electrolytes: weak acids weak bases Nonelectrolytes: water most organics Strong Acids Strong Bases HCl Group IA with OH - HBr Bottom of Group IIA – Ba(OH) 2 , Sr(OH) 2 , Ca(OH) 2 HI HNO 3 HClO 4 H 2 SO 4 NaCl is strong electrolyte (soluble ionic compound) NaCl( aq ) → Na + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) HCl is strong electrolyte (strong acid) even though it’s molecular compound. HCl( aq ) → H + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) HF is weak electrolyte (weak acid) HF( aq ) H + ( aq ) + F - ( aq ) means that the reaction is proceeding in both directions (forward and reverse) This sets up an equilibrium between the forward and reverse reaction. A reaction is at equilibrium when rate forward reaction = rate reverse reaction so concentrations of each species in solution remains constant. For HF there are 3 species in solution: HF( aq ), H + ( aq ), F - ( aq ). There is a lot more HF( aq ) in solution than H + ( aq ) or F - ( aq ) because HF is a weak acid.
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Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solution 3 Ex. What is the total concentration of ions for a 0.450 M solution of sodium phosphate if it completely dissociates in water? Na
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course CHEMISTRY 101 taught by Professor Shalvoy during the Fall '07 term at Quinnipiac.

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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous...

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