Chapter 5 - Chapter 5: Gases Properties of Gases 1 1) Gases...

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Chapter 5: Gases 1 Properties of Gases 1) Gases are easily compressed. Unlike solids and liquids that have definite volumes, gases can have variable volumes and, hence, be easily compressed 2) Gases expand to fill the container they’re in. The volume of a gas is determined by the volume of the container. 3) Gases have low densities. Much lower (700 – 7000 × ) than liquids or solids 4) Gases mix. Rapid particle movement of gases ensures that they mix rapidly. 5) Gases exert pressure uniformly on the walls of the container they’re in. Liquids have variable pressure, depending on gravitation, etc. The Kinetic Theory of Gases Gas particles behave like microscopic spheres, bouncing around freely in a container. 1) Gases consist of particles moving, at any given instant, in a straight line. (Why?) 2) Collisions between gas particles occur without loss of kinetic energy. (Why?) 3) Gas particles are widely spaced apart. (Volume of gss is mostly empty space.) 4) Volume of particles is negligible compared to volume they occupy. (How?) 5) Gas particles are independent. Attractive forces are negligible. (Why?) Gas Measurements What aspects of a gas can be measured? Pressure, Temperature, Volume Pressure 2 Force lbs Area in P = = (psi) measured with barometer or gauge Units typically used are atmospheres (atm) and mm Hg 1 atm = 760 mm Hg exact conversion Ex. How many mm Hg is 3.50 atm? 3.50 atm 760mmHg 1 atm = 2660 mm Hg How many atm is 445 mm Hg? 445 mm Hg 1atm 760 mmHg = 0.586 atm Temperature Measurement of average kinetic energy of gas when kinetic energy → 0, speed → 0; need temperature → absolute 0, 0 K units of temperature °C or K K = °C + 273 Volume volume of gas = volume of container volume units: mL or L What are relationships between these three? P, T, V
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Chapter 5: Gases 2 Charles’ Law – volume is directly proportional to temperature V T or V = kT ( P constant) V k T = 1 2 1 2 V V T T = 2 2 1 1 T V V T = Ex. A gas with a volume of 55.4 mL at 27 °C is heated to 54 °C with pressure remaining constant. What is the volume of the gas at this temperature? Reasoning
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course CHEMISTRY 101 taught by Professor Shalvoy during the Fall '07 term at Quinnipiac.

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Chapter 5 - Chapter 5: Gases Properties of Gases 1 1) Gases...

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