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November 29-ch32 - Chapter 32 The Circulatory System Three...

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November 29, 2007 Chapter 32 The Circulatory System Three major parts o Blood o Blood vessels o Heart Open circulatory o Space within the body cavity (hemocoel) Mollusks, arthropods Closed circulatory o Blood confined within continuous vascular system with a pumping heart All vertebrates and some invertebrates Functions o Transport of O2 and CO2 o Distribution of nutrients o Transport of waste o Distribution of hormones o Regulation of body temperature o Prevent blood loss o Protect against disease Evolution of the heart Vertebrate hearts have muscular chambers called atria and ventricles o Atria: collect blood from the body o Ventricles: contract and discharge blood to body Four chambered hearts o Most advanced o Two atria and two ventricles o Separation of o2 rich and o2 poor blood maximizes efficiency Human heart functions Two types of blood vessels connect to heat chambers o Veins: carry blood to atria o Arteries: carry blood away from ventricles Two separate pumps o Right pump o Left pump Pumps separated by ventricular septum
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Cardiac cycle The heart beats in a coordinated fashion o Both atria contract and pump blood into ventricles o Both ventricles contract and pump blood into arteries o All chambers relax briefly before the cycle repeats o This cardiac cycle lasts less than 1 second Blood pressure Heart chamber contractions generate blood pressure that drives blood flow o Systolic pressure: blood pressure during ventricular contraction o Diastolic pressure: blood pressure during ventricular relaxation Heart valves
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