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October 2-ch 18 - common ancestry o Convergent and...

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October 2, 2007 Chapter 18 Systematics: The organization of Biological Diversity Systematics Classification originated as a hierarchy of categories Systematists identify features that reveal evolutionary relationships Anatomy plays a key role in relationships Systematics is the branch of biology that places organisms in a category The eight major categories of classification o Domain o Kingdom o Phylum o Class o Order o Family o Genus o Species Scientific names o Formed from the genus and species The genus Sialia includes three species Sialia sialis Each two-part name is unique and recognized worldwide o Carolus Linnaeus Laid the groundwork for the modern classification system o Charles Darwin o Ciologists realized that taxonomic categories should reflect evolutionary relatedness The more categories two organisms share the closer they are to one another Evolutionary relationships o Systematists determine evolutionary relationships based on similarities due to
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Unformatted text preview: common ancestry o Convergent and Divergent evolution • Systematists examine similarities in external and internal structures • Systematists examine genetic similarities between o DNA sequences o Chromosomes The Domains of Life The five-kingdoms system improved classification A three-domain system more accurately reflects life’s history Kingdom-level classification remains unresolved The Two-Kingdom system Before 1969, all forms of life were classified into kingdoms Animalia Plantae (everything but animals) The Five-Kingdom System Kingdoms: o Monera o Fungi o plantae o Animalia o Protista The three-domain system Carl Woese Kingdom Monera included two very distinctly different groups o Bacteria o Archaea Three domain o Bacteria o Archaea o Eukarya Kingdom level classification o Systematists have yet to reach a consensus...
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