Chapter 8 - Chapter 8: Electron Configurations, Atomic...

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Chapter 8: Electron Configurations, Atomic Properties, and the Periodic Table 1 Electron Configurations Already know relative energy levels for n . n = 1 < n = 2 < n = 3, etc. Also know energy levels for different types of orbitals s < p < d < f , etc. Have a way of accounting for electrons in atoms—electron configuration or orbital diagrams electron configuratio n orbital diagram H 1 s 1 1 s He 1 s 2 1 s  Li 1 s 2 2 s 1 1 2 s s  Be 1 s 2 2 s 2 1 2 s s   B 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 1 1 2 2 s s p      C 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 2 1 2 2 s s p     N 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 3 1 2 2 s s p   O 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 4 1 2 2 s s p     F 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 5 1 2 2 s s p      Ne 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 1 2 2 s s p      Na 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 1 1 2 2 3 s s p s      Abbreviated Electron Configuration Na 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 1 [Ne] 3 s 1 Mg 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 [Ne] 3 s 2
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Chapter 8: Electron Configurations, Atomic Properties, and the Periodic Table 2 The e-s fill according to the aufbau principle and Hund’s rule . aufbau principle – e-s fill from lowest energy level to highest Hund’s rule – in degenerate (equivalent energy) set of orbitals, e-s fill spin up first before pairing spin up with spin down. Show how they fill using periodic table. Ask for a couple of e- configurations. Explain quantum numbers and how they apply to each electron. Exceptions to the Rule Having given rules for filling atoms with e-s, there are, of course, exceptions. This usually happens with atoms that have many e-s and orbitals get very close together in energy. 2 notable exceptions: Cr and Cu can see why with orbital diagrams Cr expect this 1 2 2 3 3 4 3 s s p s p s d             really this 1 2 2 3 3 4 3 s s p s p s d          Cr: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 4 s 1 3 d 5 is electron configuration because there is greater stability with shells or subshells completely filled or completely ½ filled. Cu expect this 1 2 2 3 3 4 3 s s p s p s d                really this 1 2 2 3 3 4 3 s s p s p s d                Cu: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 4 s 1 3 d 10 is electron configuration. Go over atomic radii, effective nuclear charge, and periodic table.
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Chapter 8 - Chapter 8: Electron Configurations, Atomic...

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