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PSYCH STUDY GUIDE - Biological Bases of Behavior Hierarchy...

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Biological Bases of Behavior Hierarchy : The Cerebral Cortex involves the highest level of thinking, meaning that evolutionarily, the hindbrain came first, then the midbrain, then the Forebrain, which contains the Cerebral Cortex. Localization of the cerebral cortex means that certain parts of the brain perform different functions. Temporal Lobe : Auditory processing, some memory Occipital Lobe : Visual cortex Parietal Lobe: Somato-sensory cortex; means that receives information from sensory organs and relays them to muscles / glands Frontal Lobe: complex thought, higher cognitive function Evidence for Localization ? *EEG PET MRI: high technological advancements in brain imaging *damage to the brain limits certain functions Challenges for Localization? *there is not always a perfect relationship between damage & effect *Rehabilitation from damage Lateralization: involves the “split-brain” theory, meaning that there are two hemispheres to the brain (right and left) that are similar in structure and appearance while have different functions. Evidence: *The Corpus Callosum: band of fibers/nerves that crosses in between the two hemispheres for communication. Split brains do not have a functioning corpus callosum and neither do epileptics. *Split Brain studies : person is given a stimulus to the left eye, the information goes to the right hemisphere, they see it but they cannot say that they saw it. Left Hemisphere: Language Right Hemisphere: Spatial Orientation ***
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The Neuron Dendrites: Receive incoming signals Soma : Nucleus and Cytoplasm of cell Axon : through which nerve impulses travel from the soma to the terminal buttons (bring information away from neuron) Terminal Buttons : Contain neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter: chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate signals between a neuron and another cell. Synapse: the site of functional apposition between neurons, where an impulse is transmitted from one to another, usually by a chemical neurotransmitter released by the axon terminal of the pre-synaptic neuron. The neurotransmitter diffuses across the gap to bind with receptors on the postsynaptic cell membrane and cause electrical changes in that neuron. Different types of neurons: Sensory : carries info from sensory receptors to CNS Motor : carries info away from CNS to muscles/glands Interneurons : relay info from sensory neurons to other interneurons or motor neurons. Resting potential: 1. There are more potassium ions inside than there are sodium on the outside. 2. Inside neuron has negative voltage (polarized in respect to fluid outside cell) 3. Negative charge will keep cell from firing. Action potential: 1. Ion channels allow sodium ions to flow in giving cell positive charge 2. Cell must be de-polarized (positive charge inside, negative charge outside) 3. Signal can now pass down the axon.
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