# fluid-mechanics.ppt - PHYSICS 1 Calculus-Based Chapter 14 -...

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PHYSICS 1Calculus-BasedChapter 14 - Fluid MechanicsCOLEGIO DE SAN GABRIELARCANGEL
States of MatterSolidHas a definite volume and shapeLiquidHas a definite volume but not a definite shapeGas – unconfinedHas neither a definite volume nor shapeAll of these definitions are somewhat artificial.More generally, the time it takes a particular substance to change itsshape in response to an external force determines whether thesubstance is treated as a solid, liquid or gas.IntroductionCOLEGIO DE SAN GABRIELARCANGEL
FluidsA fluid is a collection of molecules that are randomlyarranged and held together by weak cohesiveforces and by forces exerted by the walls of acontainer.Both liquids and gases are fluids.IntroductionCOLEGIO DE SAN GABRIELARCANGEL
Statics and Dynamics with FluidsFluid StaticsDescribes fluids at restFluid DynamicsDescribes fluids in motionThe principles that have already been discussed willalso apply to fluids.IntroductionCOLEGIO DE SAN GABRIELARCANGEL
Forces in FluidsFluids do not sustain shearing stresses or tensilestresses.The only stress that can be exerted on an objectsubmerged in a static fluid is one that tends tocompress the object from all sides.The force exerted by a static fluid on an object isalways perpendicular to the surfaces of the object.Section14.1COLEGIO DE SAN GABRIELARCANGEL
Measuring PressureThe spring is calibratedby a known force.The force due to the fluidpresses on the top of thepiston and compressesthe spring.The force the fluid exertson the piston is thenmeasured.Section14.1COLEGIO DE SAN GABRIELARCANGEL
PressureThepressurePof the fluid at the level towhich the device has been submerged isthe ratio of the force to the area.Pressure is a scalar quantity.Because it is proportional to themagnitude of the force.If the pressure varies over an area,evaluatedFon a surface of areadAasdF=P dA.Unit of pressure ispascal(Pa)FPA21Pa1 N/mSection14.1COLEGIO DE SAN GABRIELARCANGEL
Pressure vs. ForcePressure is a scalar and force is a vector.The direction of the force producing a pressure isperpendicular to the area of interest.Section14.1COLEGIO DE SAN GABRIELARCANGEL
Density NotesDensity is defined as the mass per unit volume ofthe substance.The values of density for a substance vary slightlywith temperature since volume is temperaturedependent.The various densities indicate the averagemolecular spacing in a gas is much greater thanthat in a solid or liquid.Section14.2COLEGIO DE SAN GABRIELARCANGEL
Density TableSection14.2COLEGIO DE SAN GABRIELARCANGEL
Variation of Pressure with DepthFluids have pressure that varies with depth.If a fluid is at rest in a container, all portions of thefluid must be in static equilibrium.

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Fundamental physics concepts, Colegio de San Gabriel