History Notes for 3rd test

History Notes for 3rd test - History 1003-1 3/12/08 Lecture...

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History 1003-1 3/12/08 Lecture Notes for Third Test Industrial Revolution 1) Introduction a) Changed almost everything in Western Civilization: economy, society, politics b) Still going on c) Began in Britain 2) Prerequisites: Labor Force and Food a) Population of Britain i) 1700 5 million ii) 1750 5.7 million iii) 1800 8.7 million b) Food Supply vastly increased i) Squires (1) People who own most of the land (2) People became interested in agricultural improvement (a) Some of this is scientific improvement ii) Crop Rotation (1) “Turnip” Townshend (a) Said you plant turnips to a fallow field because turnips put nitrogen into a soil iii) Bigger and Better livestock iv) Enclosure Movement (1) fencing fields 3) Prerequisites: Infrastructure a) Canals i) 1759: first industrial canal ii) 1800: 3000 miles of canals b) Roads (turnpikes) 4) Prerequisites: Customers a) Middle-class market b) Advertising i) First advertising in newspapers, magazine and journals c) Josiah Wedgwood’s pottery 5) Prerequisites: Technical Skill a) Royal Patent Office i) 1750: 12 patents ii) 1769: 37 patents iii) 1802: 107 patents iv) 1825: 250 patents b) Why Britain? i) Society was open ii) Some industries, like mining, needed technical innovation
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6) Prerequisites: Investment a) Bank of England (founded 1694) i) Managed national debt ii) Issued currency iii) Developed mechanisms to move money around 7) Process: Cotton a) Five main operations i) Harvesting raw cotton ii) Transporting it iii) Combing and Spinning iv) Weaving thread into cloth (1) Weaving machines could fit in homes but spinning machines were too big so they made factories to fit them in v) Finishing (1) Dyeing b) 1733: John Kay’s shuttle sped up weaving c) 1770s: spinning machines accelerated spinning d) 1790s: Cotton gin (Eli Whitney) accelerated cotton harvesting e) Annual import of raw cotton to Britain i) 1790: 37 million pounds ii) 1815: 100 million pounds iii) 1830: 250 million pounds 8) Process: Power (Steam) a) 1760s: James Watt’s steam engine b) Applied to everything: cotton manufacturing, mining, transportation i) steamboat in 1807 and first steam railroad in 1825 9) Wars with France, 1793-1815 a) Little trade with France b) Napoleon tried to end Britain’s trade with all of Europe c) Europe could not import British technology d) By 1815, Britain was WAY ahead of Europe in industrial progress e) The 19th century, in terms of economics, it the British century 10) 11) Age of Isms (1776-1825) 12) 13)Introduction: -isms are ideologies a) Ideologies = secular BELIEF systems b) Ideology is not a theory about how society is organized or how it acts, but how it SHOULD be organized and how it SHOULD act 14)Liberalism a) Classical Liberalism i) What we probably call conservatism today b) Political Liberalism i) human beings can govern themselves ii) Representative government iii) Impartial
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iv) Law-abiding v) Freedom of the press vi) Not republicans; constitutional monarchy was fine (1) Did not think that republicism was the best form of government
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course HIST 1003 taught by Professor Zucker during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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History Notes for 3rd test - History 1003-1 3/12/08 Lecture...

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