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Magic Bullets Notes

Magic Bullets Notes - 1/16 I The Discovery of Penicillin 1...

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1/16 I) The Discovery of Penicillin 1) Research Paper Selection a) One page prospectus due February 4 th b) Including i) Short Bibliography ii) Answers to What? Who? Where? When? iii) Outline of an argument iv) Prospective primary sources c) Topics include drug biographies, drug research at Yale, drug advertisements d) Papers must be historical papers II) Introduction A) Penicillin, the iconic drug (movie: The Third Man) B) Late 1940’s – price of penicillin was higher than gold, mainly reserved for military C) The first miracle drug? – saved incredibly sad cases of horrible diseases D) The discovery of penicillin as master narrative E) Informs our understanding of drug discovery today F) The relations between: 1) Historical actors (laboratory, clinic, industry, government and the public) 2) Innovation strategies – (biological research, clinical research, natural…) G) Abundant bibliography 1) By journalists, historians, and scientists (including the main participants) 2) By 1946, there were three books on the history of Penicillin a) Yellow Magic, The story of penicillin b) Penicillin: A Dramatic Story c) The Conquest of Disease The Story of Penicillin 3) Dominantly heroic stories but with different heroes 4) Reflects high stakes in the history of penicillin and popular appeal III) A Chance Discovery A) The Short Story 1) Alexander Fleming (1881-1955), physician, microbiologist 2) St Mary’s Hospital London 3) 1928 Fleming studies staphylococci 4) Return from a holiday and finds plates contaminated by mold 5) Notices bacterial lysis 6) The antibacterial filtrate from Penicillium: Penicillin 7) Discovery published in 1929 8) Fleming knighted in 1944 9) Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine 1945, together with Ernst Chain and Howard Florey 10) “The discovery of penicillin arose simply from a fortunate occurrence which happened when I was working on a purely academic bacteriological problem” 11) Postwar icon 12) “Serendipity means narrative” IV)The Longer Story
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A) Vaccination at St-Mary’s
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Magic Bullets Notes - 1/16 I The Discovery of Penicillin 1...

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