Proteins_Nucleic%20acids_rDNA_technology_2011 - Proteins...

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Proteins Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in  cells and living  organisms. One half of dry weight of organisms are proteins. Proteins are the products of genes found in  chromosomes (DNA). A single gene codes for a single protein. Proteins are polymers of many different amino acids  held together  by peptide bonds i.e., a long chain. A polymer of amino acids is referred to as a  polypeptide chain. Some proteins are composed of one or more  polypeptide chains. Proteins have unique amino acid compositions and  sequences. Because there are 20 different amino acids the  variety of  proteins that exist is vast. Because proteins have unique amino acid sequences  and  composition they have unique functions in the  body or cell.
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Classification of proteins according  to their  Biological functions Enzymes Trypsin Transport Proteins Hemoglobin Nutrient/Storage Casein (Milk) Contractile/Motility Actin/Myosin Structural Keratin/Collagen Defense Antibodies Regulatory Polypeptide Hormones e.g., Insulin/Growth Hormone
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Proteins can also be classified according to their shape and physical  characteristics e.g., Globular or Fibrous. Globular Proteins: Polypeptide chain(s) are tightly folded into compact spherical or globular shape.
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