alcohols - Alcohols Alcohols are classified as primary...

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Alcohols Alcohols are classified as primary secondary and tertiary depending on whether the carbon attached to the OH group is attached to one two or three other carbons.Methanol or methyl alcohol although not fitting any of these categories is classified as a primary alcohol. Phenol is an alcohol with a ring structure and the OH group is always considered to be at position one in the ring. If however the OH group is attached to a ring structure containing either a carboxylic acid aldehyde or ketone grouping then the OH is not considered to take precedence. The hydroxyl group strongly shapes the the physical characteristics of the alcohols.It aids their ability to enter into hydrogen bonding, as a result it raises their boiling points and increases their solubilities in water.
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Hydrogen bonding in alcohols Hydrogen bonds may form between the oxygen atom of one alcohol molecule and the hydroxyl hydrogen atoms of another. Alcohols build up an extensive network of these interactions. Although hydrogen bonds are longer and much weaker than the covalent O-H linkage, so many of them form that their combined strength makes it difficult for molecules to escape the liquid. The result is a higher boiling point. Alcohols are also soluble in water in contrast with the alkanes which are totally nonpolar and insoluble in water. Alkanes are said to be hydrophobic, on the other hand the OH group and other polar substituents such as COOH and NH 2 are hydrophilic. The longer the alkyl chain part of the alcohol the lower its solubility in water, at the same time the alkyl part increases its
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Solubility of the alcohol in nonpolar solvents. Alcohols as acids and bases Acids are proton donors and bases are proton acceptors (Bronsted-Lowry) Alcohols are acidic whereas the alkanes and haloalkanes are not.. The strength of an acid or base are measured by equilibrium constants. Acidity and basicity are commonly measured in water. An acid donates protons to water to give the hydronium ion, whereas a base removes them to give the hydroxide ion.
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