Bio93_Review - Bio 93 Summer 2006 Final Exam Review Monday...

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Bio 93 Summer 2006 Final Exam Review Monday 7/31/06 Bio 93 Summer 2006 review-1 Summer 2006, Bio93, Felix Grün, Copyright reserved 1 st hour: review of lecture material 2 nd hour: Q+A. If you do not understand a topic please prepare a question
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Somatic cells of each species contain a specific number of chromosomes Human cells have 46, making up 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes Duplicated chromosome Centromere Sister chromatids Summer 2006, Bio93, Felix Grün, Copyright reserved review-2 Can you accurately describe chromosome structure at different stages of the cell cycle & behaviour during mitosis 1 DNA polymer (double helix) 1 chromosome = Homologous pair maternal paternal
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MITOSIS MEIOSIS PARENT CELL (before chromosome replication) Site of crossing over MEIOSIS I PROPHASE I Tetrad formed by synapsis of homologous chromosomes PROPHASE Duplicated chromosome (two sister chromatids) METAPHASE Chromosome replication Chromosome replication 2 n = 4 ANAPHASE TELOPHASE Chromosomes align at the metaphase plate Tetrads align at the metaphase plate METAPHASE I ANAPHASE I TELOPHASE I Sister chromatids separate during anaphase Homologous chromosomes separate during anaphase I ; sister chromatids remain together No further chromosomal replication; sister chromatids separate during anaphase II 2 n 2 n Daughter cells of mitosis Daughter cells of meiosis II MEIOSIS II Daughter cells of meiosis I Haploid n = 2 n n n n Summer 2006, Bio93, Felix Grün, Copyright reserved review-3
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The stages of meiotic cell division: Meiosis I Summer 2006, Bio93, Felix Grün, Copyright reserved review-4
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The stages of meiotic cell division: Meiosis II Summer 2006, Bio93, Felix Grün, Copyright reserved review-5
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GENE LOCI P a B DOMINANT allele RECESSIVE allele P a b GENOTYPE: PP aa Bb HOMOZYGOUS for the dominant allele HOMOZYGOUS for the recessive allele HETEROZYGOUS Alternative forms of a gene (alleles) reside at the same locus on homologous chromosomes How are genes and alleles arranged on chromosomes ? Summer 2006, Bio93, Dr. F. Grün, Copyright reserved review-6
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YYRR P Generation Gametes YR yr × yyrr YyRr Hypothesis of dependent assortment Hypothesis of independent assortment F 2 Generation (predicted offspring) 1 2 YR YR yr 1 2 1 2 1 2 yr YYRR YyRr yyrr YyRr 3 4 1 4 Sperm Eggs Phenotypic ratio 3:1 YR 1 4 Yr 1 4 yR 1 4 yr 1 4 9 16 3 16 3 16 1 16 YYRR YYRr YyRR YyRr Yyrr YyRr YYrr YYrr YyRR YyRr yyRR yyRr yyrr yyRr Yyrr YyRr Phenotypic ratio 9:3:3:1 315 108 101 32 Phenotypic ratio approximately 9:3:3:1 F 1 Generation Eggs YR Yr yR yr 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 Sperm Independent Assortment Summer 2006, Bio93, Dr. F. Grün, Copyright reserved review-7 What implications does this have for genetic inheritance patterns ?
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A cross between two black mice that are heterozygous (BbCc) will follow the law of independent assortment. However, unlike the
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course BIO SCI 93 taught by Professor Yu during the Summer '06 term at UC Irvine.

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Bio93_Review - Bio 93 Summer 2006 Final Exam Review Monday...

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