Chem 125 - 6 - Chapter 16

Chem 125 - 6 - Chapter 16 - The States of Matter Chapter 5...

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The States of Matter Chapter 5 Chapter 16
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States of Matter Gases – Compressible fluids Liquids – Relatively incompressible fluids Solids – Incompressible and rigid, not fluids Phase transition – a change of a substance from one state to another.
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Changes of State Melting – the change of a solid to the liquid state. Freezing – the change of a liquid to the solid state. Vaporization – the change of a solid or liquid to a vapor. 2 2 H O( ) H O( ) s l l 2 2 H O( ) H O( ) l s l 2 2 H O( ) H O( ) l g l 2 2 H O( ) H O( ) s g l Sublimation
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Phase Transformations
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Liquids!
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Understanding the Properties of Liquids and Solids Intramolecular vs. Intermolecular Forces Forces between atoms in a molecule/formula unit: ionic and covalent bonds Forces between molecules: van der Waals forces, London forces, hydrogen bonds
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Types of Interactions Within and Between Particles
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Intramolecular Forces What are chemical bonds? They are the forces that hold atoms together in molecules and ions. Why do chemical bonds form? To lower the potential energy of the atoms involved.
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Intramolecular Forces Covalent bonds are formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms, the mutual attraction of the nuclei for the shared electrons keeps the atoms together. Ionic bonds Polar covalent bonds Covalent bonds No sharing of electrons Unequal sharing of electrons Equal sharing of electrons
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Polar Covalent Bonds and Ionic Character Substances containing polar covalent bonds often have partial ionic character and may display ionic properties. Cl H δ δ - - + aq) ( Cl aq) ( H HCl(aq) - + + δ + δ -
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Intramolecular Forces An ionic bond is a chemical bond formed by the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions.
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Chem 125 - 6 - Chapter 16 - The States of Matter Chapter 5...

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