Sociology FinalChapter 8:Pathology of Privilege by Tim Wise–Why is it significant that the word “over–Color blindness is the basis for the current downsizing of policies related to affirmative action, school desegregation, and voting rights. It comes from a lack of awareness of racial privilege conferred by whiteness.Chapter 9:–Social Construction: Social construction is how society groups people and how it privileges certain groups over others.–Gender realities: Our experiences of the world are put into categories and we treat these categories as real things (Social Construction of Reality). Gender is socially constructed. It doesnot exist from a biological standpoint, nor is it fixed, which means that all cultures have their own gender categories and their own representations of what gender encompasses.1. There is no nation where women and men are equal.2. Sex refers to the biological differences between males and females.3. Gender refers to the social and cultural patterns attached to women and men.4. Social factors make women unequal to men.–The gender roles approach emphasizes traits that individuals acquire during the course of socialization, such as independent or dependent behaviors and ways of relating.–The gender structure approach emphasizes factors that are external to individuals, such as the social structures and the social interactions that reward women and men differently.–Gender stratification refers to the hierarchical placement of the sexes that gives women, unequalpower, opportunities, and resources.–Patriarchy is the term used for forms of social organization in which men are dominant over women.–Learning gender at home:Clothing, books, toys, and language–Androgyny: The physical representation of masculine and feminine characteristics–Formal Education:Curriculum, teacher-student interactions, sports, female role models–Women in the labor force:Women's labor force participation rates have increased over the past century. However, the gap between women's and men's earnings has remained relatively constant for three decades. In 2010, women earned 81 cents for every dollar men earned.Chapter 10:-Heteronormativity is a term used to convey the belief that heterosexuality is the normal sexual orientation, and all other orientations are seen as deviant and thus marginalized.-Deviance is behavior that does not conform to social expectations; it is socially constructed.-Compulsory heterosexuality is the idea that one's sexuality is not chosen, but rather forced through society.
-Miscegenation:marriage and sexual relationships between people of different races-Sexual preference implies a sense of choice regarding the sex of people to whom one is attracted, whereas sexual orientation implies a deterministic or biological view of sexual proclivities.