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EDUC518Module 1 – Discussion Thread: Literature Review CritiqueIs learning styles-based instruction effective? A comprehensive analysis ofrecent research on learning stylesJoshua CuevasAbstract:“Results revealed that the more methodologically sound studies have tended to refute thehypothesis and that a substantial divide continues to exist, with learning styles instructionenjoying broad acceptance in practice, but the majority of research evidence suggesting that ithas no benefit to student learning, deepening questions about its validity.”Background:“School districts and universities spend millions of dollars each year on assessments, trainingprograms, textbooks, materials, and speakers who advocate for learning styles instruction.”“The phraselearning stylesrefers to the concept that different people prefer to processinformation in different ways and therefore learn more effectively when they receiveinstruction in a way that conforms to their preferences (Pashler et al., 2009).”Aptitude (a natural ability to do something) + Learning Style = Instructional ApproachGardner - Multiple Intelligences:eight forms of intelligence that all people possess: visual-spatial, verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal,intrapersonal, musical, and naturalistic.Teachersare expected to consider all intelligenceswhen lesson planning in order to appeal to students’ learning styles.Kolb-classifies learners along two dimensions: a preferred mode of perception (concrete orabstract) and a preferred mode of processing (active experimentation or reflectiveobservation) (Gogus and Gunes, 2011;Pashler et al., 2009;Zacharis, 2011). Based on thesecategories, it classifies learners into one of the four categories: divergers who favor feelingand watching (concrete, reflective), assimilators who favor thinking and watching (abstract,reflective), convergers who favor thinking and doing (abstract, active), and accommodatorswho favor feeling and doing (concrete, active).VAK/VARK:visual/auditory/kinesthetic (VAK) or visual/auditory/read–write/kinesthetic(VARK) is the most common learning styles taxonomy in practice (Bishka, 2010;Fridley andFridley, 2010;Riener and Willingham, 2010) and has become commonplace at all levels ofeducation and through a wide range of commercial products.Scott (2010)suggests that theVAK/VARK model may have taken hold to the extent that it did in educational settingsbecause the categories relate to specific senses and are concrete in comparison to otherlearning styles models which can appear abstract to the point of ambiguity.The premise ofthe learning styles hypothesis is that matching learning style to instructional mode producesincreased learning, for the VAK/VARK models, this would mean matching instruction tostudents’ sensory functions – a visual learner would be provided visually oriented instruction,an auditory learner would be provided with verbal instruction.This would seem to be morereadily measurable than the more fluid constructs of the Kolb inventory.