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From the A GEM of A Study case, answer the following questions:1.What are the independent and dependent variables in this study?2.What are some of the intervening, extraneous, and moderating variables that the study attempted to control with its 10-nation design?3.Can you do a causal study without controlling intervening, extraneous, and moderating variables?4.What is the impact on study results of using national experts (key informants) to identify and weigh entrepreneurial framework conditions?5.Can you do a causal study when much of the primary data collected is descriptive opinion and ordinal or interval data?For any experiment or study, identifying variables and their relationship to each other and how they affect each other, in order to be measured and controlled correctly, is important (Leatham, 2012). To better isolate the independent and dependent variables, those conducting theexperiment must fully understand the point of the experiment and the context in which these variables take place (Leatham, 2012). Additionally, the dependent variable is the primary variable being studied and measured and is affected in some way by the independent variables (Schindler, 2019). The independent variables are usually related to the dependent variable and are used to manipulate the dependent variable in order to study their influence (Schindler, 2019). In the GEM study, the dependent variable seems to be economic growth, or GDP and jobs, as it can be measured and tested and is the primary variable to be studied. There are several independent variables that were manipulated and may have an effect on economic growth. These were:Social, cultural, and political contextGeneral national framework conditionsEntrepreneurial framework conditionsEntrepreneurial opportunitiesEntrepreneurial capacityBusiness dynamics Some of the intervening, extraneous and moderating variables the study attempted to control, and of which some were also considered independent variables, were the general national and entrepreneurial framework conditions, entrepreneurial sectors, business dynamics and economic growth. These variables were important to the validity of the study because they relate to the research at hand and have had past research proving a link to each other (Bernerth &Aguinis, 2016). Also, these variables have strong correlation and may give a different reason for the study’s results or at least have some effect on the results (Bernerth & Aguinis, 2016). The correlation between these variables was proven with statistical results showing a positive correlation between perception of opportunity and entrepreneurial potential with business start-up rates and this in turn, positively correlated with GDP growth and employment levels (Schindler, 2019). This also proves that, “In all labor there is profit” and that governments should
encourage entrepreneurial pursuits to improve economic growth and job availability (New King James Version, 1997, Proverbs 14:23).