ID listCh. 12: Industrial Revolution1.Thomas Malthus: hates babies. Thinks lowering birthrates is the only way to decreasepoverty; supports laissez-faire economics.2.Adam Smith: Scottish political thinker renowned for his workWealth of Nations, one ofthe first modern economic works, which championed a laissez-faire system, in whichself-interest is the primary motivator of workers. Division of labor: break jobs up intotiny jobs, give rise to concentrated specialists: creates more jobs, also more efficiencysince workers don't have to change jobs/positions.3.Textile industry: Hargreave's spinning jenny and other convenience inventions increasedoutput. Water power caused workers to centralize around water sources like rivers.4.James Watt: improved on the steam engine, created more efficiency and greater range oflocations since water source was unneeded.5.Henry Bessemer: steel manufacture. More durability and stronger metal for bettermachines6.George Stephenson: first public steam locomotive railway. Transportation getting better7.Agents of industrialization: 1. migration of guild workers illegal in england: artisanssecretly snuck out and spread industrialization outside of Britain. 2. Government:subsidies, tariffs, infrastructure. Government assisted in costs of railways, also cheapbritish goods 3. banks: had many shareholders and were able to lend money 4. naturalresources.8.Urbanization: rural countysides were turning into cities, which had terrible livingconditions and were crowded and horrid.9.Luddites: hated machinery, used to attack and destroy them, costing company ownersmuch money.10. Friedrich Engels:Conditions of the Working Class in England:industrial revolution wasbad for workers, negative effect on lower class. Beginnings of socialism.11. Saint-Simon: early socialist, wanted to reconcile classes, not cause class warfare.preached the opportunity to create a new society.: scientific knowledge, if properlyunderstood by everyone, could unite the people similar to how Christianity did.Scientifically organized society.12. Charles Fourier: Society and human needs conflict, cause misery. Must reorganizesociety, create tiny hedonistic communities in order to satisfy men's needs for pleasureand therefore happiness.13. Robert Owen: Scotland. Healthy, happy workers = better production. Clean, well-organized factories that treated workers well. Eventually, New Harmony, Indiana.14. Sadler Commission Report: Series of questions posed to workers about living conditionsand moral conditions of workers: depraved and horrid. Raised awareness.15. Factory Act (1833): Age restrictions on amount of work allowed. 9-14 year olds, no morethan 9 hours a day. 14-17 year olds, no more than 16 hours per week.16. Reform Act (1832: Suffrage extended to middle class.