FOUNDATIONS_OF_PLANNING - Chapter 7 FOUNDATIONS OF PLANNING...

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Chapter 7 FOUNDATIONS OF  PLANNING
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Objectives Define planning. Differentiate between formal and informal planning. Explain why managers plan. Describe purpose of planning. Define goals and plans Describe types of goals organizations might have. Describe what role goals play in planning. Distinguish among different types of plans. Describe how traditional goal setting works Explain the concept of means-end chain. Describe MBO approach Describe the characteristics of well-designed goals. Identify three contingency factors in planning. Discuss the criticisms of planning. Describe how managers can plan effectively in today’s dynamic  environment.
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What is planning? Planning is the process of deciding what  objectives to pursue during a future time period  and what to do to achieve those objectives. Or Planning is the process of determining how the  management system will achieve its objectives. Defines the organization’s goal’s Establishing an overall strategy for achieving those  goals. Developing a comprehensive set of plans to integrate  and coordinate organizational work Determines how the organization can get where it wants to go.
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What is planning? (Cont…) Types of planning In informal panning, nothing is written down,  and there is little or no sharing of goals with  others in the organization. Formal planning involves specific goals  covering a period of years. These goals are  written down and shared with organizational  members
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Purpose of planning Planning is important and serves many significant  purposes.  - Planning gives direction to the organization. - Planning reduces the impact of change. - Planning establishes a coordinated effort. - Planning reduces uncertainty. - Planning reduces overlapping and wasteful       activities. - Planning establishes objectives or standards       that are used in controlling.
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Planning helps managers to be future-oriented. Planning enhances decision coordination. Planning emphasizes organizational objectives. Planning improves focus and flexibility. E.g. an  organization that is focused knows what it does best, etc.  An individual that is focused knows where he or she  wants to go in a career, etc. Planning improves action orientation. Planning improves time management. For example:   Do say “no” to requests that divert you from work you should be  doing. Don’t get bogged down in details that should be done by others.
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FOUNDATIONS_OF_PLANNING - Chapter 7 FOUNDATIONS OF PLANNING...

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