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A Gem of a Study DiscussionDepartment of Business, Liberty UniversityBUSI600: Business Research MethodsModule 2: Week 21. What are the independent and dependent variables in this study?
In the CaseBuilder “A Gem of a Study” assignment, researchers from varying professional sources, including the Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership and the London BusinessSchool, sought to determine what factors promote entrepreneurship and, consequently, perpetuate job, economic, and GDP growth (Schindler, 2019, p. 1). To do so, researchers designed a study to detect potential causal relationships. As stated by researcher, Joseph Maxwell, “adequate causal explanations in the social sciences depend on the in-depth understanding of meanings, contexts, and processes that qualitative research can provide” (Maxwell, 2012, p. 655). Thus, for their dependent variable, researchers selected to research economic growth, well-being, and business capabilities/dynamics to gain more in-depth understanding. Such business dynamics include the creation/loss of new jobs and job growth. Conversely, they chose as their independent variable socio-cultural and political factors which may potentially impact entrepreneurial opportunities. This includes constructs listed in the Exhibit C-Gem 1-1 GEM Conceptual Model such as general national framework conditions, entrepreneurial opportunities, entrepreneurial framework conditions, entrepreneurial capacity, and their associated concepts and constructs (Schindler, 2019, p. 2). Each underlying concept, whether financial markets, perception, skills, or internal market openness, were measured through survey research, program building, non-standardized data collection, hour-long personal interviews, or questionnaires.2. What are some of the intervening, extraneous, and moderating variables that the study attempted to control with its 10-nation design?
In its attempt to prognosticate economic growth, this study has several intervening, extraneous, and moderating variables which affect its 10-nation design (Schindler, 2019, p. 2). As an independent variable which may bias/influence factors a researcher is hoping to examine, extraneous variables can often “indicate there is a causal relationship when none exists,” causing researchers concern (Flannelly, L., Flannelly, K, & Jankowski, 2014, p. 165). In this study, researchers sought to account for these variables by working to measure how they affect associated dependent variables, consequently grouping test subjects by select features (age, cultural region, etc.), and including these features in the resulting statistical analysis to “control for variation in the levels of the variable” (Flannelly, L., Flannelly, K, & Jankowski, 2014, p. 166).According to the examples of extraneous variables provided by Flannelly and colleagues, the extraneous variables controlled for in this study include age, cultural background, differing nationalities, and experience. Those not controlled for could include whether participants have prior entrepreneurship background, their educational level, their creative ability, whether they are/are not immigrants, and economic situation (Flannelly, L., Flannelly, K, & Jankowski, 2014,