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Unformatted text preview: Phl 115: Introductory Logic Study Guide f07 Lectures 1. Explain the branches or subdivisions of philosophy. 2. Just believe! Epistemically, what is the problem with this religious admonition from my youth? 3. What is epistemic humility and how is it important? 4. Explain God of the Gaps. a) Connect this with the appeal to ignorance, and b) suggest a problem with thinking of God in this way. Foreword 1. Define mind-independent and give an example. viii 2. Carefully explain in your own words & experiences the rules Bertrand Russell gives for avoiding intellectual rubbish. viii Chapter 1 1. The authors say that we all hear a lot of whats but seldom any good whys . Translate/explain. 2 2. The authors suggest two reasons why good whys are important. Explain them. 2 3. If I just believe the Elvis does not live (in other words, I hold this belief alone ), this belief, the authors claim, does NOT help me to get closer to the truth. Why? 3 4. Why isnt belief alone enough? 3 5. Discuss the logical problem with the following claim: There is no such thing as objective reality. 4 6. What is the problem (absurdity, really) in claiming there is no such thing as objective truth? 5 7. Homeopathy is based on two doctrines. What are they? 10 8. What is the hundredth-monkey phenomenon? 12 9. Give an example of thinking with your hopes, fears, wishes. 12 Chapter 2 1. Can God do what is logically impossible? 2. ESP includes what three specific activities? 15, 19 3. Augustine is perhaps the greatest Christian theologian ever. He is quoted as saying, A miracle is not contrary to nature but contrary to our knowledge of nature. Explain. 4. Explain the principle of causality. 25 5. Carefully explain what the burden of proof is. 6. Explain the three rules of thumb that should guide us in determining where to place the burden of proof. 7. Explain and illustrate initial plausibility. 8. Explain and illustrate the claim that the burden of proof falls automatically on those supporting the affirmative side of an issue. 9. Explain precisely and illustrate the fallacious appeal to ignorance. 10. What are some specific circumstances where the burden of proof is appropriately placed 1 on a particular side? 11. God is all-knowing. What are the logical consequences of this belief for freedom? 29f Chapter 3 1. Collective hallucinations are limited by two categories. Carefully explain them. 40a 2. The reliable eyewitness is common for investigations of collective hallucinations. What in fact is the reliable eyewitness? 40b 3. Pareidolia : define and give an example. 42 4. It is certainly possible that an alien civilization sculpted a massive human face on Mars (seen in the photos on pp. 42, 43). Explain why it is a mistake to assume this possible explanation is true....
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