8-1 CHAPTER 8 FLEXIBLE BUDGETS, OVERHEAD COST VARIANCES, AND MANAGEMENT CONTROL 8-1 Effective planning of variable overhead costs involves: 1.Planning to undertake only those variable overhead activities that add value for customers using the product or service, and 2.Planning to use the drivers of costs in those activities in the most efficient way. 8-2At the start of an accounting period, a larger percentage of fixed overhead costs are locked-in than is the case with variable overhead costs. When planning fixed overhead costs, a company must choose the appropriate level of capacity or investment that will benefit the company over a long time. This is a strategic decision. 8-3The key differences are how direct costs are traced to a cost object and how indirect costs are allocated to a cost object: Actual Costing Standard Costing Direct costs Actual prices × Actual inputs used Standard prices × Standard inputs allowed for actual output Indirect costs Actual indirect rate × Actual inputs used Standard indirect cost-allocation rate × Standard quantity of cost-allocation base allowed for actual output 8-4 Steps in developing a budgeted variable-overhead cost rate are: 1. Choose the period to be used for the budget, 2. Select the cost-allocation bases to use in allocating variable overhead costs to the output produced, 3.Identify the variable overhead costs associated with each cost-allocation base, and 4.Compute the rate per unit of each cost-allocation base used to allocate variable overhead costs to output produced. 8-5Two factors affecting the spending variance for variable manufacturing overhead are: a. Price changes of individual inputs (such as energy and indirect materials) included in variable overhead relative to budgeted prices. b. Percentage change in the actual quantity used of individual items included in variable overhead cost pool, relative to the percentage change in the quantity of the cost driver of the variable overhead cost pool. 8-6 Possible reasons for a favorable variable-overhead efficiency variance are: Workers more skillful in using machines than budgeted, Production scheduler was able to schedule jobs better than budgeted, resulting in lower-than-budgeted machine-hours, Machines operated with fewer slowdowns than budgeted, and Machine time standards were overly lenient.