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Chapter 1•Communication is speaking into relationships (in everyday life)◦It causes a result, creates an atmosphere, manages an identity◦Builds a world of meaning on one persons relationship with another•Same words send a different message depending on the context and the style of delivery•Communication contains both a content (message) level anda relational level ◦Every message indicates how the speaker and listener are socially and personally related •When you communicate with people many assumptions are made -- sometimes about meaning or power or relationship or gender or race or the culture in which the communication occurs. Communication in 3 ways 1.Communication as action- a sender sending messages whether or not they are received 2.Communication as interaction- communication only if thereis an exchange of information between two or more individuals (person replying)3.Communication as transaction - the construction of shared meanings or understandings between two or more individuals •Constitutive approach- pays close attention to the fact that communication can create or bring into existence something that has not been there before •Symbol- an object or ides whose meaning is more complicated than it looks ◦The middle finger for fuck you. A red light for stop. Police officer for power.◦Arbitrary representations of ideas, objects, people,
relationships, etc ◦Convey potential for multiple meanings subject to change •Sign- casual connection to something ◦Wet streets are a sign that it rained. Smoke is a sign of fire. ◦Consequences and indicators of something specific. •Language is a symbolic form of communication ◦Uses words to stand for objects or ideas •Communication requires meaning ◦Varies according to culture, context and the relationship between the interactants •Communication can be representational and presentational ◦Representation - normally describes facts or conveys information (facts)◦Presentation - presents particular version or take on facts orevent (spin)•Frames - basic forms of knowledge that provide a definition of a scenario, either because both people agree on the nature of the situation or because that cultural assumptions built into the interaction and the previous relational context oftalk give them a clue.•Communication involves intentionality ◦Behavior is produced consciously and deliberately ◦Four types Successful communication Miscommunication - sent intentionally but interpreted wrongAccidental communication - sent without intent but interpreted right Attempted communication - sent intentionally but not received Chapter 2 - Verbal Communication•Relationships frame the meaning of talk. (The use of
language, and the use of language can be personalized)•Langue- the formal grammatical structure of language that you will read about in books on grammar •Parole- how people actually use language with informal and ungrammatical structure that carries meaning to us all the