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10/4/201Chapter 12Rings, Moons, and PlutoAstronomy 1F0311Moons of the Solar Systems2Credit: OpenStax figure 12.2Number: 200+ and countingComposition: rocky, icy, organic compoundsOrbits: 1/3 prograde, 2/3 retrograde2Galilean MoonsNamed after discoverer Galileo (1610)Spacecraft visitsPioneer 10 and 11 (first visit; early 1970s flyby)Voyager 1 and 2 (late 1970s flyby)Galileo orbiter (1995-2008)Juno (arrived 4 July 2016)Increasing distance from Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto3Jupiter’s moonsCredit: NOTEXAMINABLE3IoLeft: Image from Cassini flyby (on its way to Saturn)Below: No impact craters but lots of volcanic activity4Jupiter’s moonsCredit: Credit: (moon)4Io’s Constant ResurfacingEntire surface is very young; no craters5Jupiter’s moonsCredit: (moon)5Io’s Internal Heat SourceIo is about the same size as the MoonWhy is it not geologically dead like the Moon?Io must have another source of heat6Credit: (moon)Jupiter’s moons6
10/4/202Io’s Tidal Heating7Elliptical orbitGravitational forces from Jupiter keep changingIo is continuously squashed and stretched Credit: Jupiter’s moons7Io’s Elliptical OrbitOrbital

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Solar System, Neptune, Pluto, Natural satellite, Orbital resonance

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