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Unformatted text preview: PELOPONNESIAN WAR, PLATO, PHILOSOPHY I. Later Peloponnesian War 1. Sicilian Expedition (415-3). a. Alcibiades' treason/advice to Sparta: i. Declare War on Athens, ii. Help Syracuse, iii. Build Fortress in Attica, iv. Ally with Persia. b. Nicias' cowardice - didn't place troops & Athens first c. Results - Athens lost half its military power. 2. Athenian Recovery-Alcibiades' Return & Fall (412-407) 3. Arginusae (406) - costly victory; winning generals killed! 4. Aegospotami (405) - decisive defeat, no more ships/men 5. Athens besieged, surrenders in 404 after 10% starve & die 6. The 30 (404-403 B.C.) - Vicious puppet oligarchy, bloodbath sickened even Spartan sponsors, overthrown in 403. Critias' misdeeds; Socrates & Plato tainted 7. Restored democracy - amnesty - general distaste for oligarchy. Athens' astonishing revival - but stalemate ensued II. Early Greek Philosophy 1. Thales (~600 B.C.) & Greek Physical Philosophy 2. Pythagoras 550 B.C.-half cult, number mysticism, taboos 3. Heraclitus 500 B.C. - anti-Rationalist, believed in learning thru inspiration, "Everything flows", no stability in material world, conflict fruitful - equilibrium, Logos . 4. Parmenides 480 B.C. - rationalist, change and movement illusions, w/Heraclitus started philosophical disciplines of ontology, epistemology, metaphysics, reality a small homogenous transcendental sphere reached by mind. 5. Later Physical Philosophy - Empedocles' 4 substances, Democritus' Atomic Theory 6. Most of physical philosophy at deadlock - "Nothing exists?" - No instruments or methodology to prove who Most of physical philosophy at deadlock - "Nothing exists?...
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- Fall '06
- Philosophy, physical philosophy, PHILOSOPHY I. Later, Early Greek Philosophy, Greek Physical Philosophy