Final Review

Final Review - Final Review The Four Biological Compounds...

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Final Review
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The Four Biological Compounds The four categories of biological compounds: Carbohydrates (sugars and starches) Lipids (fats and oils) Proteins Nucleic Acids (not discussed in this lab) 1 2 3 4
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The large molecules in 3 of the 4 classes of organic compounds (carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids) are chainlike molecules called polymers . A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many identical or similar building blocks called monomers . Monomers become covalently bonded to each other through a dehydration condensation synthesis , in which water is lost.
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Conversely, polymers are disassembled into monomers by hydrolysis , during which the covalent bonds within polymers are broken. This type of process occurs, for example, during the digestion of food.
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Carbohydrates 1 Glucose Fructose Sucrose Include: Monosaccharides, e.g. Disaccharides, e.g.
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Carbohydrates 1 Polysaccharides are polymers composed of several hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined together through dehydration (condensation) syntheses.
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It is perhaps easier to see the carbonyl group (C = O) of a monosaccharide when its chemical structure is represented in linear, rather than ring, form. Carbohydrates 1 of glucose
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Lipids (fats and oils) 2 Lipids are NOT polymers, because the two subunits of which they are composed, glycerol and fatty acids, are structurally very different from each other. However, a lipid is formed through a dehydration synthesis between one molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acid.
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Lipids (fats and oils) 2 The difference between fats and oils lies in the nature of their fatty acids. The fatty acids of FATS have few or no double bonds linking their carbon skeleton. Instead, the carbon atoms are “saturated” with hydrogen bonds. Lacking double bonds between carbons, the carbon chain of the fatty acid is straight. The saturated fatty acids of fats can nestle closely together; thus, FATS are SOLID at room temperature.
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Lipids (fats and oils) 2 The fatty acids of OILS have numerous double bonds linking their carbon skeleton. The carbon atoms are “unsaturated” with hydrogen bonds. The double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acids of oils produce kinks in the fatty acid chains; the kinks keep oil molecules apart. Thus, OILS are LIQUID at room temperature.
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The cell membrane is called a ______________ , in which the hydrophilic heads are exposed to the watery environment outside and inside the cell, and the hydrophobic tails are shielded from water. Structure of the Cell Membrane
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Proteins 3 A protein is a polymer of amino acids. They are joined together through condensation reactions that link the carboxyl group (COOH) of one amino acid with the amino (NH 2 ) group of another. The resulting bond is called a peptide bond .
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There are several “levels” of protein structure. The primary structure of a protein is the linear sequence of its amino acids, joined together by peptide bonds.
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Final Review - Final Review The Four Biological Compounds...

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