This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Meeting Feed Requirements For All Classes of Horses Digestive Categories of Horses Maintenance basic requirements of life Growth youngest have highest requirements Gestation last three months Lactation first three months Work depends on activity light, moderate, intense Geriatric Body Condition Scoring 13 PoorThin 4 Can see ribs, vertebral ridge evident 5 Back flat, can't see ribs, but can feel them 6 Crease down back, fat deposits 79 Fleshy Extremely fat This horse also needs an energy supplement. BCS 3 This horse DOES NOT need an energy supplement! BCS 8 This broodmare may be difficult to get in foal! BCS 4 This mare is a better breeding prospect BCS 6 Levels of Performance/Work Light western and English pleasure, trail riding, equitation, hacking May need very little grain Moderate dressage, ranch work, roping, cutting, barrel racing, jumping will need concentrates to maintain body weight Intense race training, polo, cutting, etc. May need up to 50% of the diet as concentrates Digestive Tract 100 feet long Stomach small, frequent, meals; initiates digestion, like nonruminant Small Intestine site of most amino acid from dietary protein, most soluble CHO energy from grain diet, fat digested Cecum/Large Colon site of bacteria needed to digest cellulose to VFA's in forages like ruminants Small Colon absorb water, urea Hind gut fermentation in the horse Fiber VFAs (propionate, acetate, butyrate) Absorbed, converted to glucose Also: B-vitamins (thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, etc), some microbial protein, but most protein not absorbed from cecum and colon Ruminants fore gut fermenters (Horses require better forage and protein quality than cows) Common Feeding Problems Amount of forage in the diet Particle size of diet Feeding schedule Timing of exercise Availability of water and minerals General health/feed quality Management Stress Overuse of processed feeds can lead to nutritional/ behavioral problems in horses Feed form and weight gain Whole grains Long stemmed hay Hay cubes Texturized feeds (sweet feed) Grain pellets Complete feeds or TMR TMR best for weight Gain! Growth Rates of Weanlings fed forage and grain separately or as completely pelleted diet
Average Daily Gain 1.274
Cubes/Omolene 1 Pelleted Diet 1.911 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Pounds per day Feeding Guidelines Eat 2.5 % of BW as Dry Matter Forage KNOW THE HORSE'S WEIGHT! Feed more forage than grains Access to water 1 gal/100 BW/day and minerals (salt) Need regular exercise be athletic Most horses are overweight Forages are the Foundation Grasses Legumes Bromegrass Orchardgrass Tall Fescue Timothy Oat Hay Wheat hay Alfalfa Birds Foot trefoil Clovers Lespedeza Grain Hays Straw Test Your Forage: Welcome to the Home of the NFTA:
www.foragetesting.org NEWS: 2005 Certification Program Information now online! Proceedings now available 2004 List of NFTA Certified Labs Memo on Dry Matter Standard for 2003 Dry Matter Method Sampler Certification A brief history of the NFTA Balanced diets The horse needs nutrients in the right proportions usually we are supplementing the basic hay diet with:
energy minerals and vitamins protein discuss types of supplements not products Building a Horse Ration Start with horse needs Maximize forage 2.5% BW/day Add energy if needed Add protein and minerals if needed Consider adding vitamins and other supplements Energy & Protein Concentrations in Total Diet (As fed) Animal Type DE (Mcal/lb) C.P. (%)
Maintenance Light work Moderate work Intense work Weanling (46 mo) Yearling Gestation (11 mo) Lactation (first 3 mo) .80 1.05 1.10 1.20 1.25 1.15 1.00 1.10 8.0 9.8 10.4 11.4 13.1 11.3 9.5 12.0 Energy Supplements Grains Oats higher protein & fiber weigh less, variable crimped vs. whole lower in protein, higher in DE cracked, steam rolled Barley intermediate energy good protein less than 30% rolled, cracked, flaked, not recommended ergot fungus Corn Sorghum & wheat Rye Other Energy Supplements? Increase body condition or work Energy supplements Fat up to 15% may increase and stabilize blood glucose and spare muscle glycogen, may reduce heat production, improve hair coat appearance Enzymes or calming agents to conserve energy for performance many claims little research data DMG Dimethylglycine active in mitochondria respiratory part of cells increases oxygen transport to make ATP and use glycogen Protein or Amino Acids Protein quality amino acid balance Lysine, threonine, methionine, most limiting for growth and milk production milk protein better for foals Mixtures for hoof health Methionine, lysine with zinc and biotin Sources of Protein for Horses Soybean Oil Meal Flax Linseed Meal Sunflower Meal Cottonseed Meal Peanut Meal Corn Gluten/Distiller's Casein Dried Skim Milk Fish Meal Meat Meal Major Mineral Concentrations in Total Diets Animal Type Ca (%) (%) Maintenance .21 Light work .27 Moderate work .28 Intense work .31 2 YO/training .32 Weanling (4 mo) .62 Yearling .40 Gestation (11 mo) .41 Lactation (3 mo) .47 P (%) .15 .19 .22 .23 .18 .34 .22 .31 .30 .08 .10 .11 .12 .08 .07 .07 .10 .09 Mg Macro Minerals % Calcium .3.8%, Phosphorous .2.5% Sodium and Chloride, .51.0% added Potassium, Magnesium, Sulfur Dietary Cation/Anion Balance (DCAB) the more positive balance more basic/less acidic DCAB = meq of (NA + K) (CL + S) Trace Minerals Ratios affect absorption of all Toxicities often seen with iron and selenium Adequate/Excess Trace Minerals
Mineral Maintenance Performance 40 40 40 10 .1 .6 .1 .1 Maximum 1,000 1,000 500 800 5.0 2.0 Iron (mg/kg) 40 Manganese Zinc Copper Iodine Selenium 40 40 10 .1 .6 Vitamin/ Mineral Combinations A, D, E, & K Stored in fat potentially toxic C, B complex water soluble blood builders mostly iron vitamins easily destroyed by heat, high copper and iron, dampness, and high oil levels Biotin/methionine/sulfur hoof growth Chelated or "Organic" Minerals Bind to EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid), amino acids, ketones, etc... Shields the mineral from external influences and can affect absorption : + or Beneficial if : if chelation increase mineral absorption if more of that mineral is needed by the body if excesses of other minerals are present costs of chelation are not greater than feeding more Sulfur Sources Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a metabolite of DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide source of sulfur A sulfur deficiency has not been reported in horses. Most horse feeds contain at least 0.15% nonmineral or organic sulfur , which appears adequate to meet horses requirements. Sulfur in amino acids is most available to the horse. Sulfur is needed in the body to make some amino acids, biotin and thiamine (B vitamins) and many other constituents like insulin, heparin, chondroitin sulfates in cartilage and tendons, hair and hoof wall. Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin B Thiamine Riboflavin Niacin Pantothenic acid B6 Biotin Folacin 5.0 mg/kg DM fed 4.0 mg/kg DM fed *22 mg/kg DM fed *13 mg/kg DM fed *2.0 mg/kg DM fed *2.5 mg/kg DM fed *0.3 mg/kg DM fed Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid *25 mg/kg DM fed "Lubricants" Major class of "Nutraceuticals" GAGS Glycosaminoglycans i.e..... Chondroitin sulfate/glucosamine lubricating agents of cartilage Hyaluronic acid viscous material in synovial fluid Wide Variety of "Nutritional" Products Body Builders (anabolics) Behavior changers (thiamine, magnesium, vit E) Oral antibiotics Bacterial cultures (ie: lactobacilli) may help some horses Yeast/Yeast cultures Botanical Therapies valerian root sedative yucca arthritis herbal formulas lameness, digestion, and overall health Can be dangerous! Metabolic Diseases of Nutritional Nature Colic Laminitis/Founder Physitis/Epiphysitis Exertional Myopathy tying up paralytic myoglobinuria, rhabdomyolysis Rickets/osteomalacia, Osteochondrosis Acidosis, ketosis, alkali disease Toxicities mycotoxins, endophytes, minerals, etc. Summary All diet components except hay and water are supplements Start the diet formulation with high quality hay Supplement according to needs due to growth, production or exercise Make diet changes gradually Provide plenty of fresh water View herbal and "nutraceutical" supplement claims skeptically Base feed decisions on researchbased information ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course ANSC 206 taught by Professor Kline during the Spring '08 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.
- Spring '08