2.2.6 Lab_ Investigate Passive Heating and Cooling (2).pdf...

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2.2.6 Lab: Investigate Passive Heating and Cooling Wet Lab AP Environmental Science Sem 1 Points Possible: 40 Name: Lauren Kane Date: Investigate Passive Heating and Cooling Most of these principles involve taking advantage of the sun's rays, the movement of air masses, the heat capacity of water, and insulation. The sun's rays: The sun's rays carry energy that warms the materials they strike and then the air around those materials. Blocking these rays causes a home to be less warm, while absorbing this energy increases heat. Knowing the angles of the sun's position in the sky during the summer and winter can help architects to design homes that can block the summer rays and catch the winter rays. Dark-colored materials absorb the energy of the sun's rays, and light-colored materials reflect that energy. Areas with large windows can act like a greenhouse, letting in large amounts of light and heat but not letting that heat escape. This greenhouse effect can warm a house. Awnings, blinds, and shades can be moved to let in light during the winter and block or redirect it during the summer. Make use of deciduous trees and landscaping to block the sun in the summer and let it in through the winter. Movement of air masses:
Cool air sinks, and warm air rises. Warm air will always move to the top of a home. Upward-sloping roof angles can move air to vents at the top of the home, away from the living area. Moving air cools. Breezes through a home can cool it. Fans and windows positioned in certain areas can cause cross breezes that enable cooling. Heat capacity of water: Water has a higher specific heat capacity than air, which means that it will absorb more energy than air to increase in temperature by the same amount, and it will lose energy (heat) more slowly than the air around it. Air moved over cool or warm bodies of water will cool and warm accordingly. Underground pools of water can cool air blown over them and direct it into a home. Insulation: Insulation is layers of materials that trap heat. Good insulation in walls, ceilings, and roofs can trap heat inside during the winter and keep heat from entering during the summer. Double-paned windows increase insulation. Vents can be louvered, which means they can have moving slats or blinds that can be opened to let air through or closed to keep air in or out. Some choices in home materials (for example, flooring tiles instead of carpet) trap heat, while others readily transfer heat. In this lab, you will be researching some of these ideas and then modeling how some of these factors affect the heating and cooling of a home. First, you will build a home without any of these energy-saving improvements. Then you will change your home design to be more energy-efficient. You will test both homes and evaluate their energy efficiency by measuring temperature changes in each when they are exposed to a warming source of light.

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