biol1201 test 1 notes

biol1201 test 1 notes - Range of conditions for life o...

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Range of conditions for life o Cell/body temperature from -2 degrees C to 130 degrees C o Range of pressure: 1atm (surface) to 1100 atm o Average depth of ocean Temp 2-4 degrees C; Pressure 380 atm No sunlight -380 meters is average depth of the ocean -Organisms confront many different conditions Antarctic fishes Live and have body temp at -2 degrees C (below the freezing temperature of most vertebrate’s body fluids) ectotherm Penguins -Keep warm at similar temperatures (endotherm) - generates own body heat through metabolism - Diving seals - hold their breath for as long as 90 minutes - They dive down to 1500 meters - Deep sea fishes -down to 7000 meters - high pressure, low food availability (Rattails are an example) - Barophiles - bacteria-piezophiles (= barophiles) are the pressure loving thrive at high pressures; thrive at pressure that kills surface bacteria - Thermophiles - bacteria- thermophiles exist at temperatures up to 130 degrees C (grow at 121 degrees C) Hydrothermal vents -cracks in sea floor will allow very hot water to come out (350 degrees C) Sharks -Live with ½ molar urea in their tissues (so the concentration of solutes measures that of sea water) -Urea is a potent denaturant of proteins Halophiles -Halophilic bacteria live in osmotic equilibrium with three molar salt Tuna -Raise the temperature of their muscles above ambient (as much as 15 degrees C) - Are endotherms in contrast to ectothermic fish
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Gutless Tubeworms -Thrive at deep-sea hydrothermal vents -Some can grow as large as six feet long Midwater fish and invertebrates -Organisms living in the water column achieve neutral buoyancy despite the high density of biological materials The freezing problems confronting fish -Antifreeze peptides- small proteins (=peptides) that depress the freezing point of solutions -non-colligative freezing point depression, “Hysteresis” proteins affect freezing point but not eh melting point (How are you able to Decrease the freezing point but not change the melting point? Freeze at -2 degrees C but melt at 0 degrees C -Colligative property: depends on the number of particles (molecules) and not on the nature of molecules Chemistry background - Elements - pure substances which cannot be broken down into two or more simpler substances by methods ordinarily available in the laboratory; 92 naturally occurring elements 103 total - Atom is the smallest unit into which an element can be divided and retain its identity; consists of nucleus (protons +1 charge, 1 Dalton mass) neutron (0 charge; 1 Dalton mass) electron (-1charge essentially without a mass) - Atomic number - equal to the number of protons found in the nucleus - Atomic mass =number (mass) of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus - Number of electrons=Number of protons -in an ion, the number of electrons is not equal of to the number of protons - Compound - substance which can be broken down into two or more elements 1. The composition of a given compound is always the same 2. When elements combine to form compounds, energy is either liberated or absorbed
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biol1201 test 1 notes - Range of conditions for life o...

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