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ANTH1003 Ch. 11 Book Outline for Test 3

ANTH1003 Ch. 11 Book Outline for Test 3 - ANTH1003 Book...

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Page ANTH1003 Book Notes for Ch. 11 – Test 3 4/8/08 Chapter 11: Gender 1. Sex and Gender a. Sexual dimorphism : differences in male and female biology besides the contrasts in breasts and genitals. i. Primary sexual characteristics: genitalia and reproductive organs ii. Secondary sexual characteristics: breasts, voice, hair distribution iii. There has been a pronounced reduction in sexual dimorphism during human biological evolution. iv. Predominant anthropological position on sex-gender roles and biology: “The biological nature of men and women [should be seen] not as a narrow enclosure limiting the human organism, but rather as a broad base upon which a variety of structures can be built” (Friedl) v. Gender refers to the cultural construction of male and female characteristics vi. Borque and Warren note that the same images of masculinity and femininity do not always apply vii. Gender roles : the tasks and activities a culture assigns to the sexes 1. Vary with environment, economy, adaptive strategy, and type of political system viii. Gender stereotypes : oversimplified freedom or autonomy (in disposing of one’s labor and its fruits) and social power (control over the lives, labor, and produce of others) ix. Gender stratification in stateless societies regards prestige more than wealth. x. Rosaldo studied the Ilongots of northern Luzon in the Philippines; described gender differences related to the positive cultural value placed on adventure, travel, and knowledge of the external world.
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ANTH1003 Book Notes for Ch. 11 – Test 3 4/8/08 Men Ilongots travelled more and received acclaim; the women had inferior prestige because they lacked external experiences on which to base knowledge and dramatic expression. 1. Ong argues that we must distinguish between prestige systems and actual power in a given society. 2. Recurrent Gender Patterns a. Exceptions to cross-cultural generalization may involve societies or individuals. b. Cross-culturally the subsistence contributions of men and women are roughly equal but in domestic activities and child care, female labor predominates. i. Women tend to work more hours than men do. c. There are differences in male and female reproductive strategies i. Women give birth, breast-feed, and assume primary responsibility for infant care; they ensure their progeny will survive by establishing a close bond with each baby ii. Menarche: the advent of first menstruation iii. Polygyny is much more common than polyandry d. Double standards that restrict women more than men illustrate gender stratification. i. Sanday found that gender stratification decreased when men and women made roughly equal contributions to subsistence; she found it was greatest when the women contributed either much more or much less than the men did.
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ANTH1003 Ch. 11 Book Outline for Test 3 - ANTH1003 Book...

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