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ANTH1003 Ch. 10 Book Outline for Test 3s

ANTH1003 Ch. 10 Book Outline for Test 3s - ANTH1003 Book...

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Page ANTH1003 Book Notes for Ch. 10 – Test 3 4/8/08 Chapter 10: Marriage 1. What is Marriage? a. Marriage is “a union between a man and a woman such that the children born to the woman are recognized as legitimate offspring of both partners.” i. Not universal 1. Plural marriages : when a man weds two or more women 2. Fraternal polyandry : when a woman weds a group of brothers (Ex. Himalayan) 3. In Sudan a Nuer woman can marry a woman if her father has only daughters but no male heirs, who are necessary if his patrilineage is to survive. (This results in social rather than biological paternity) 4. Genitor : the biological father 5. Pater : a socially recognized father 2. Incest and Exogamy a. Exogamy : the practice of seeking a husband or wife outside one’s one group i. Has adaptive value because it links people into a wider social network b. Incest : sexual relations with someone considered to be a close relative i. Is a culturally universal taboo, although the definition varies among cultures 1. Distinction of cousins a. Important in societies of Unilineal descent b. Parallel cousins : The children of two brothers or two sisters i. Belong to ego’s own moiety ii. EX: Your mother’s sister’s children and your father’s brother’s children iii. Are considered brothers and sisters and therefore are tabooed as sex or marriage partners c. Cross cousins : the children of a brother and a sister i. Belong to ego’s opposite moiety
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ANTH1003 Book Notes for Ch. 10 – Test 3 4/8/08 ii. EX: Your father’s sister’s and your mother’s brother’s children iii. Sex with cross cousins isn’t incestuous because they aren’t considered cousins 1. EX: Yanomami of Venezuela and Brazil call cross cousins “wife/ husband” or “brother/sister-in-law.” They believe sex with cross cousins is proper, but with parallel cousins it is considered incestuous. 2. Strict Patrilineality a. The mother is not a relative but a kind of in-law who has married a member of ego’s group – ego’s father b. EX: The Lakher of Southeast Asia i. Ego can’t marry his father’s daughter by the second marriage; however, ego can marry his mother’s daughter by a different father 3. Strict Matrilineality a. The father isn’t a relative because he belongs to a different descent group 4. Moiety organization : A community with only two descent groups (patrilineal moieties and matrilineal moieties are examples) 3. Explaining the Taboo a. Although Tabooed, Incest Does Happen i. DNA testing of wild chimps has confirmed incestuous unions between adult sons and their mothers, who reside in the same group. ii. In the Yanomami, Chagnon reported that “incest, far from being feared, is widely practiced iii. In the Ashanti, Fortes says, “In the old days it [incest] was punished by death. Nowadays the culprits are heavily fined.”
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ANTH1003 Ch. 10 Book Outline for Test 3s - ANTH1003 Book...

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