biol1201 final study guide

biol1201 final study guide - DNA synthesis 5 questions...

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DNA synthesis – 5 questions Enzymes involved in DNA replication Table 16.1 and fig. 16.16 o Polymer synthesized from monomers DNA polymerase o Polymer grows by adding a new nucleotide triphosphate to the 3' -OH group of the growing DNA strand o Covalent bond formed involving the 5' Phosphate and the 3' Hydroxyl o Single stranded DNA serves as a template for the new strand o DNA synthesis is "primed" w/ a short segment of RNA synthesized by the enzyme primase o DNA elongation catalyzed by the enzyme DNA polymerase. o RNA primer is replaced by DNA synthesized by DNA polymerase . o Base pairing (Fig. 16.7 and 16.8) The pairs of nitrogenous basses in a NA double helix are held together by hydrogen bonds, as shown here. A pairs with T – two hydrogen bonds G pairs with C – three hydrogen bonds AZT (from your lecture notes) See the worksheet Molecular Genetics on Blackboard under Course Documents TREATMENT OF HIV/AIDS W/ AZT o Block the production of viral DNA o AZT = Azido Thymidine AZT o 3' azido (N3) group instead of 3' OH group o When AZT is added to growing viral DNA strand the azido group stops the addition of further nucleotides o The azido group cannot form a covalent bond w/ the 5 phosphate o Human DNA does not incorporate AZT because Human DNA has proof reading abilities. Transcription and translation – 11 questions Components of RNA synthesis RNA polymerase Formed on the template strand of DNA The RNA is ant-parallel to the DNA RNA polymer grows in the 5’ to 3’ direction Monomer added to the 3’ OH of the polymer Fig. 17.26 1
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Types and functions of RNA rRNA (ribosomal)- serves as the scaffolding for the proteins of a ribosome. (The most abundant type of RNA, which together with proteins forms the structure of ribosomes. Ribosomes coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to mRNA codons. mRNA ( messenger) - 1 Single strand 2 Specifies the sequence of amino acids to be added t polypeptide which will be synthesized (synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein) tRNA (transfer) 3 Serves as an adapter molecule to bring in the appropriate amino acid in protein synthesis 4 Fig 17.14 5 Key features: Attachment site for the appropriate amino aid Aminoacyl tRNA synthase Single strand of RNA Fig 17.15 Anticodon Base pairs with the codon in mRNA (functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid nd protein languae by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.) Components of translation process process of synthesizing the protein directed by the messenger RNA. Occurs on the ribosome. (mRNA, ribosomes (site), complex particles that facilitate linking the amino acids into the poly peptide chains) Codons and the correspondence to amino acids o 4 amino acids specified for every base Processing of mRNA Splicing and alternative splicing o A type of regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different
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biol1201 final study guide - DNA synthesis 5 questions...

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