anth1003 ch. 7&8 outline

anth1003 ch. 7&8 outline - ANTH1003 Chapter 7&8...

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ANTH1003 1/21 CHAPTER 7 OUTLINE I. Adaptive Strategies A. Yehudi Cohen used the term adaptive strategy to describe a group’s system of economic production. B. Cohen has developed a typology of cultures using this distinction, referring to a relationship between economies and social features, arguing that the most important reason for similarities between unrelated cultures is their possession of a similar adaptive strategy. II. Foraging A. Human groups with foraging economies are not ecologically dominant. B. The primary reason for the continuing survival of foraging economies is the inapplicability of their environmental settings to food production. C. Beyond the Classroom: Integrating Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Analytical Subsistence Data: A Case Study from Patagonia, South America. 1. Jennifer A. Kelly used various sources to reconstruct the subsistence strategies of the aboriginal inhabitants of Patagonia. 2. Her isotope analysis on a fragment of human bone from the region suggests that the diet of the inhabitants of Patagonia was more varied than the ethnohistoric accounts suggest. D. Correlates of Foraging 1. Band organization is typical of foraging societies, because its flexibility allows for seasonal adjustments. 2. Members of foraging societies typically are socially mobile, having the ability to affiliate with more than one group during their lifetimes (e.g., through fictive kinship). 3. The typical foraging society gender-based division of labor has women gathering and men hunting and fishing, with gathering contributing more to the group diet. 4. All foraging societies distinguish among their members according to age and gender, but are relatively egalitarian (making only minor distinctions in status) compared to other societal types.
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ANTH1003 2/21 III. Cultivation A. Horticulture 1. Horticulture is nonintensive plant cultivation, based on the use of simple tools and cyclical, noncontinuous use crop lands. 2. Slash-and-burn cultivation and shifting cultivation are alternative labels for horticulture. B. Agriculture 1. Agriculture is cultivation involving continuous use of crop land and is more labor-intensive (due to the ancillary needs generated by farm animals and crop land formation) than horticulture. 2. Domesticated animals are commonly used in agriculture, mainly to ease labor and provide manure. 3. Irrigation is one of the agricultural techniques that frees cultivation from seasonal domination. 4. Terracing is an agricultural technique which renders land otherwise too steep for most forms of cultivation (particularly irrigated cultivation) susceptible to agriculture (e.g., the Ifugao of Central Luzon, in the Philippines). 5. The Costs and Benefits of Agriculture.
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anth1003 ch. 7&8 outline - ANTH1003 Chapter 7&8...

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