Adaptation – refers to the processes by which organisms cope with environmental
forces and stresses (such as climate or topography)
Enculturation – Learning a tradition by growing up in a particular society.
Foraging – The hunting and gathering of nature’s bounty; previously served
as the sole basis of human subsistence.
– the study of the human species and its immediate ancestors
– studying the whole of the human condition: past, present, and future;
Anthropology is both comparative and holistic.
– traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, which form and guide
the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them. Distinctly human.
– the cultivation of plants and domestication of animals; originated
12,000-10,000 years ago to replace foraging in most areas.
– “four-field” anthropology; includes sociocultural (or just
“cultural”), archaeological, biological, and linguistic anthropology.
Both cultural and archaeological anthropologists study changes in social life
“In World history, those who have helped to build the
same culture are not necessarily of one race, and those of the same race
have not all participated in one culture.
In scientific language, culture is
not a function of race.”
Cultural Forces Shape Human Biology
Cultural traditions promote certain activities and ideas
North American girls are encouraged to pursue, and therefore do
well in competition involving figure skating, gymnastics, track,
swimming, etc.; Brazilian girls haven’t fared nearly as well in
This is because Brazil’s beauty standards accept more fat.
Swimmers develop hard bodies, but Brazilian culture says
that women should be soft.
– the inclusion and combination of both biological and cultural
perspectives and approaches to comment on or solve a particular issue or problem.
The Sub-disciplines of Anthropology
: the study of human society and culture; the subfield that
describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and
– provides an account of a particular community, society, or
Ethnographers traditionally lived in small communities and studied
Franz Boas (1940-1966) – noted that contact between neighboring tribes
has always existed and has extended over enormous areas.
populations construct their cultures in interaction with one another, and
not in isolation.”