anth1003 book ch.1,3,5 outline

anth1003 book ch.1,3,5 outline - ANTH1003 Ch 1 3 5 6...

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ANTH1003 1 Chapter 1 1. Human Adaptability a. Adaptation – refers to the processes by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses (such as climate or topography) i. Enculturation – Learning a tradition by growing up in a particular society. ii. Foraging – The hunting and gathering of nature’s bounty; previously served as the sole basis of human subsistence. Anthropology – the study of the human species and its immediate ancestors Holistic – studying the whole of the human condition: past, present, and future; Anthropology is both comparative and holistic. Cultures – traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, which form and guide the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them. Distinctly human. Food production – the cultivation of plants and domestication of animals; originated 12,000-10,000 years ago to replace foraging in most areas. 2. General Anthropology General anthropology – “four-field” anthropology; includes sociocultural (or just “cultural”), archaeological, biological, and linguistic anthropology. o Both cultural and archaeological anthropologists study changes in social life and customs. Ruth Benedict: “In World history, those who have helped to build the same culture are not necessarily of one race, and those of the same race have not all participated in one culture. In scientific language, culture is not a function of race.” a. Cultural Forces Shape Human Biology i. Cultural traditions promote certain activities and ideas 1. North American girls are encouraged to pursue, and therefore do well in competition involving figure skating, gymnastics, track, swimming, etc.; Brazilian girls haven’t fared nearly as well in individual sports. a. This is because Brazil’s beauty standards accept more fat. Swimmers develop hard bodies, but Brazilian culture says that women should be soft. Biocultural – the inclusion and combination of both biological and cultural perspectives and approaches to comment on or solve a particular issue or problem. 3. The Sub-disciplines of Anthropology a. Cultural Anthropology : the study of human society and culture; the subfield that describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences. i. Ethnography – provides an account of a particular community, society, or culture. 1. Ethnographers traditionally lived in small communities and studied local behavior. Franz Boas (1940-1966) – noted that contact between neighboring tribes has always existed and has extended over enormous areas. “Human populations construct their cultures in interaction with one another, and not in isolation.”
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ANTH1003 2 ii. Ethnology – examines, interprets, analyzes, and compares the results of ethnography – the data gathered in different societies. 1.
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anth1003 book ch.1,3,5 outline - ANTH1003 Ch 1 3 5 6...

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