anth1003 study guide 2

anth1003 study guide 2 - CHAPTER 1 Anthropology is....

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CHAPTER 1 Anthropology is… literally the study of human beings and traces the development of humans until the present. Anthropologists tend to focus on typical characteristics (traits and customs). concerned explicitly and directly with all varieties of people throughout the world, not just those close at hand or within a limited area. a holistic approach to the study of human beings, meaning anthropologists study not only al varieties of people, but many aspects of human experience as well. Fields of Anthropology Biological (physical) – seeks to answer two sets of questions. o First set includes questions about the emergence of humans and their later evolution (ie: human paleontology or paleoanthropology). Paleontologists study fossils and have found humanlike remains in East Africa that are more then 3 million years old. Primatologists study primates. o Second includes questions about how and why contemporary human populations vary biologically (this focus is called human variation) o Biological Anthropologists may be called up to give forensic evidence in court, or they may work in public health or design clothes or equipment to fit human anatomy. Cultural (culture to an anthropologist refers to the customary ways of thinking and behaving of a particular population or society.) o Archaeology – study of history Prehistory – the time before written records Historical archaeology – studying the remains of recent people who left written records o Linguistics – study of languages Historical – the study of how languages change over time and how they may be related. Historical Linguists usually deal with unwritten languages (writing is only about 5,000 years old). Descriptive/Structural – focus of linguistics. Descriptive/Structural linguists are typically concerned with discovering and recording the principles that determine how sounds and words are put together in speech. Sociolinguistics – study of how language is used in social contexts. Sociolinguists are interested in the social aspects of language, including what people speech about and how they interact conversationally, their attitudes toward speakers of other dialects or languages, and how people speak differently in different social contexts.
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o Ethnology – also known as cultural anthropology is concerned with patterns of thought and behavior, such as marriage, customs, kinship organization, political and economic systems, religion, folk art, and music, and with the ways in which these patterns differ in temporary societies. Use data collected through observations and interviews of living people Ethnographer – spends a year or so living with, talking to, and observing the people whose customs he or she is studying. Ethnohistorian
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anth1003 study guide 2 - CHAPTER 1 Anthropology is....

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