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CRJ 313 final exam review - CRJ 313 final exam review 1...

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CRJ 313 final exam review 1. Definition of police- Norm derivative- beliefs about what the police should do or what they are supposed to do Can’t define police in terms of ends - Police- individuals of institutions given the general right to use coercive force by the state within the states domestic territory 2. Pre Modern police- -Obligatory- were made to provide policing services (tithing Frankpledge) -Entrepreneurial- charged a fee to catch a criminal (bounty hunters) -Voluntary- volunteered to provide policing services 3. Emergence of “modern Police” Characteristics of new police to make the accepted in England- -Unarmed -Uniformed -Confined to preventive patrol Characteristics of Detectives that made them accepted in England- -only investigated serious offenses -raid a set salary, regardless of number of cases -they were given Cases, making them reactive Can gain compliance in America in 4 ways -Authority-respects the institution the officer represents -Power- fears the institution the officer represents -Persuasion-must be convinced to comply -Coercive force-physical force to gain compliance 4. Three eras of modern policing in the US Political Era (1840s-1920s) -Decentralized -Local Politics dominated -Lack of Supervision -Poor job security Reform Era (1920s-1970s) -more Centralized -impartial - focused on law and professionalism -police legitimacy Community Era (1970s-Present) -Combined professional standards of reform era and some elements of the political era -movement to decentralize -crime prevention, problem solving, order maintenance, community services
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5. Police Discretion- Defined- A police officer of an agency may be said to exercise discretion whenever effective limits on his her or its power leave the officer or agency free to make choices among possible courses of action or inaction. 5 Justifications of Discretion -Overreach of the law (laws are Vague) -Purpose of enforcement (if they get the point is ticket needed) -Resource (to few officers to many crimes) -Bad Laws (impeding the flight of a pigeon) -Citizen pressure Blacks generalizations of police behavior -most arrest arises from citizen rather than police initiative -arrests come at the preferences of citizen -police tend toward leniency
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