Bentham and Smithis modern worldview and system.Hobbes and Locke is a forerunner of modernityAdam Smith:Smith in a nutshell:1. Systems as ‘paradigms’ and history as paradigm change2. Commerce: ‘political economy’- The ‘invisible hand’- The ‘obvious and simple system of natural liberty’3. Political society: - The ‘great chessboard”- Self-interest and ‘sociability’4. Justice: the moral nature of self-interested individuals:- Sympathy- Propriety- Impartiality (the ‘spectator’) the ‘sense of justice’5. Smith theorizes the first moral justification of commercial society Politics/ Government -Politics does not play a main character for Smith but it is an important supporting role. Smith supported a limited role for government; basically he believed the lessinvolvement of a government, the more that government stays on the ideal path. The top priority of the government was to avoid interference in the market -The government according to Smith has three main duties:1.Fundamentally it is the duty of government to protect society against violence and invasion. 2. Secondly, government must provide the same administration of justice to all citizens.3. Lastly, establishment and maintenance of public services is government duty. -Smiths view of politics contributes to the justification of a commercial society in three dominate ways and will first be explained through the chessboard metaphor. -Smith wanted limited government—a government that would protect people from violence, injustice, and oppression, and also erect and maintain public works. For the most part, however, he wanted government out of economic decisions; he thought the economy should be in the hands of consumers and businesses, which could make decisions better than government.-Government should provide justice, without which there would be, chaos.
Politics the chessboard: -The chessboard metaphor represents political society in which every piece on the board has its own position. If the position of the chess pieces acts in the same direction, the game of human politics continue effortlessly and agreeably. If the positions of the pieces are different, the game will continue strenuously and society will be disordered. -To my observation, the chessboard metaphor explains that everyone is compelled by rules of motion, and everyone interacts to create new, collective situations. This interdependent process brings participants together who want to be equally involved in commercial society, thus furthering the development of it. Politics statesmanship:-Politics can similarly be clarified through statesmanship. Statesmanship is having insight in the administration of public affairs and being a man of political spirit.-Smith describes the most respectable individual as one of good conduct and has long-term friends. Such friendship arises from natural sympathy, which is an involuntary feeling to whom we attach ourselves to and praise -This friendship is said to live only among men of virtue. Men of virtue can never offend or be offended by one another and they are the happiest individuals. Being