Unformatted text preview: Warfare
Chapter 6 Warfare=Raids Warfare and raids Definition for war fits the definition for raids Intent to harm another Villages that don't become allies might become enemies Trading and feasting might still result in enmity Why do raids occur? Hekura Adultery Revenge Tradition Cycle of war Enemies forever? Enemies can become allies by the exchange of wealth Warfare has to do with Kinship more than village Violence Not all violence leads to war Some can prevent war Chest pounding duel- highly individual Referee Performance Certain kind of violence prevents war Chest Pounding Between two people Beat chests with fists Can conceal stones Can mortally wound Meant to settle small disputes Eg- gossip and not being generous Club Fight Next level Fought with 8-10 foot sharpened poles Either intra or inter village Fought over serious issues but not serious enough Ex- women, stealing Can take place between kin- father and son Clubs Leave scars Proof of waiteri The more scars the more waiteri More likely to occur in large villages- 250- 300 More people, more reasons to fight War/Raid Highest level of violence To gain wealth Or to retaliate against sorcery Sorcery can start a war Abduction Women get abducted High risk Take young children with them Raped upon abduction Symbolism One element of symbolism in war Pre dawn chanting and singing Vomiting the enemy's flesh All Waiteri? Not all men like war Culture might necessitate war Many are afraid Aches, pains and illnesses Unokais Men who have killed 40% of adult males have killed a person 60% have killed one Remaining have killed more than one Death by war is common 1/4 of men die due to war 2/3 of people 40 years and above have lost one close relative at least Violence... Killing leads to revenge raids Unokais Most successful breeders People upset theorized- violent people will breed violent children/adults Chagnon dismisses theory If true then a peaceful society should have priests Biological determinism Why are the Unokais successful? They kill So they stay alive Prestige comes with waiteri The more people you kill the more waiteri Attract more women Therefore more children Cultural success might not always lead to biological success Fieldwork Margaret Mead and Napoleon Chagnon 1 year 5 years 69 girls Yanomamo population Mead- generalized anthropology Chagnon- relatively focussed Mechanism to prevent fissioning Clans Shamans- leopard skin chiefs Strong leaders Yanomamo follow the last But not very strong leaders Law and Order No central judicial authority Every man has his own law Follows some certain rules and norms Leader can act as referee Religion and Ethnocentrism Page 225 Others as ethnocentric about beliefs as we are about the others ...
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- Spring '08
- Napoleon Chagnon, violent children/adults Chagnon, Hekura Adultery Revenge, war Pre dawn